Is Plastic Surgery, for Whatever Case, Unethical?


  • Ali Abid Saadoon MBChB, MSc, Ph D Community Physician, Dean College of Medicine / University of Warith Al-Anbiayaa
  • Rabab Abass Hasan MBChB, FICMS ( Plastic-Reconstructive Surgery ), College of Medicine / Thi-Qar University
  • Saad Khalaf Jaber Alrikabi MBChB, TUMS ( Plastic Surgery ), Burn Center / Al-Nasiriyah Teaching Hospital / Thi-Qar Health Directorate
  • Huda Basim Audiab Medical Student


Introduction is a surgical specialty. It can be used to improve how someone looks and to reconstruct facial and body tissue defects. These issues may be caused by illness, injury (trauma), or birth disorders. Plastic surgery restores and improves function, as well as appearance. It can include surgery on any part of the anatomy except the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) Justice is a concept involving fairness, equality, and equitable treatment.1Cosmetic surgery is usually considered to be elective in nature and thus not covered by third-party payers. Patients normally pay for cosmetic procedures out-of-pocket. One could argue that cosmetic surgery is not available to all, based on personal finances, and therefore does not meet this ethical requirement. On the other hand, one can argue that since patients are responsible for the cost of their own care, then cosmetic surgery does not affect the overall availability of health care resources. When using this argument cosmetic surgery passes this ethical test. Background The word “plastic” in plastic surgery, is a Greek word meaning “to form”. Plastic surgery is divided into two sections, reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery.2The initial idea of the genesis of plastic surgery is returned to repair the deep wounds of the Neanderthals due to the rock, cool guns, and spears back and bite animals.2 Historical records remained in countries like Egypt, India, Greece, Rome, in relation to wound healing; and the use of other body tissues to reconstruct the nose and lip, repair the cleft lip and tumors, correct congenital anomalies, etc. All point to the initial steps in the era of plastic surgery.2Plastic surgery in the nineteenth century progressed and at this time for first time, the skin graft was performed in Milan.2Plastic surgery, including reconstructive and cosmetic surgery, writings on clay in Mesopotamia in ancient Persia showed the wound healing and congenital anomaly repair to be born in that period.2 Plastic surgeries were developed between the two world wars. Advertisements in magazines and newspapers in this area lead to the spread of these practices and had a key role in most people’s concerns wished to change their physical appearance. Females are more likely to apply for cosmetic surgery, as they wish to be more attractive at their jobs and to have a higher social status, to seem younger, and due to psychological, social and personality factors.1 Social and community factors play important roles as these factors are related to cultural norms changes, globalization and the expansion of the Western culture receiving through the media and travels. In today’s consumer- oriented societies, attention to body image has become very popular, and the media has important role.3 Prevalence The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported an increase of 446% in cosmetic procedures since 1997 and an overall increase of 8% in 2007, with a 17% increase in men undertaking cosmetic surgery (8). This increase is similar in the United Kingdom. The British Association of Plastic Surgeons recorded a 35% increase in procedures performed by its members from 2004 to 2005 (9). With the increased prevalence, accessibility and evolution of cosmetic surgery in Western society, it is becoming increasingly relevant to explore the various internal and external factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery. Advertising and public deception is the ethical problem of plastic surgery. Media forge some surgeons by intensive advertisings of body image, claiming a lie, exaggerating individual capability using photoshop images in the offices, that all provide ethical problems in the field of plastic surgery.At present, aesthetic surgery has become increasingly popular around the world and this medical profession has become a profitable business as “cosmetic surgery industry”.2 Plastic surgery corrects the defects and pays less attention to the culture and beauty in relation to physical appearance and attention to characteristics such as gender, age, and race.In this field, health services are offered commercially.  


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