Prevalence of respiratory failure in medical intensive care unit in Slemani teaching hospital
Keywords:prevalence, respiratory failure, medical intensive care unit, sulaimani teaching hospital.
AbstractAim of study: to determine the prevalence and types of respiratory failure RF in patients admitted to Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Slemani Teaching Hospital. Patients and method: A descriptive study of (75) patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Slemani teaching hospital between (the first of July 2012 and twenty eighth of February 2013), all patients had verbal consent taken and special questionnaire filled for each patient. Results: 75 patients with female predominate (female to male ratio 1.3:1) participated in this study, majority of them were in their seventh decade, more than half (52%) of the cases were obese (BMI >30). RF found in (81.3%) of the patients and (31) patients were type I respiratory failure. Conclusions: Most causes of admission to medical ICU were due to respiratory problems, respiratory failure found in more than (80%) of the cases. Obesity was found in more than (50%). Type I respiratory failure is commoner than type II.
Macnee W. (1985), Treatment of Respiratory Failure; Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine ; 78 (1): 61-71.
Behrendt CF. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure and use of mechanical ventilation in the United States: Incidence of 31-day survival; Journal of the American Medical Association 2005; 118 (4):1100-1105.
Kaynar AM, Pinsky MR. (2011). Respiratory failure [Internet]. (cited 2012 Jan 5).
Carson SS, Cox CE, Holmes GM, Howard A, Carey TS. The changing epidemiology of mechanical ventilation: a population-based study. J Intensive Care Med 2006; 21: 173–182.
Mason R, Broaddus V, Murray J, Nadel J. Murray & Nadel’s Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 4th edition. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2005. Chapters 85 and 86.
Nava S, Hill N. Non-invasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Lancet 2009; 374:250-259.
Kasper DL, Braunwald E. Respiratory failure. Harrisons manual of medicine, 16th edition. McGraw-Hill medical publishing. 2005, Chapter 7, p 20-23.
Smyth, M. (2005) Acute respiratory failure: part 2. Failure of ventilation: Exploring the other cause of acute respiratory failure. American Journal of Nursing 2005;105: 6, 72AA–72DD.
Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, Stuart H. Halston, Respiratory deseases. Davidson`s principles and practice of medicine, 21st edition. Churchill Livingstone. 2010, Chapter 19, p659, 668-670.
Peek GJ, Mugford M, Tiruvoipati R. Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009; 374:1351-1363.
Lalit K Kanaparthi, MD, Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP, respiratory diseases, Restrictive Lung Disease. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
Allal S, Khedher A, Ben Saida I, Azouzi A, Farjallah A, Chouchen I, Bouchoucha S and M Boussarsar (2012).” New severity score of acute respiratory failure”. Critical Care 2012, 16 (Supp l1): 415.
Arterial Blood Gases - Indications and Interpretation. (2010). [Internet]. (Cited 2013 Feb 10).
Baillie K.(2007). Arterial Blood Gas Interpreter. [Internet]. (Cited 2007 Jul 05). Available from :
Baillie, JK. "Simple, easily memorised "rules of thumb" for the rapid assessment of physiological compensation for acid-base disorders". Thorax 2008; 63 (3): 289-290.
Jarvis MA, Jarvis CL, Jones PR, Spyt TJ. "Reliability of Allen's test in selection of patients for radial artery harvest". Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 70 (4): 1362–5.
Luhr OR, Antonsen K, Karlsson M, Aardal S, Thorsteinsson A, Frostell CG, Bonde J, and the ARF Study Group: Incidence and mortality after acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in Sweden, Denmark, and Iceland. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;159:1849-1861.
Lewandowski K, Metz J, Deutschmann C, Preiß H, Kuhlen R,Artigas A, Falke KJ: Incidence, severity, and mortality of acute respiratory failure in Berlin, Germany. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151:1121-1125.
Linko R, Okkonen M, Pettilä V, Perttilä J, Parviainen I, Ruokonen E, Tenhunen J, Ala-Kokko T, Varpula T, the FINNALI -study group. Acute respiratory failure in intensive care units. FINNALI: Aprospective cohort study. Intensive Care Medicine 2013; 35:1352–1361.
Franca AF, Junior CT, Hovanian AD, Rogers EB.(2011). The epidemiology of acute respiratory failure in hospitalized patients: A Brazilian prospective cohort study. Journal of critical care, 26(3), 330.
Brooks-Brunn J. Predictors of postoperative pulmonary complications following abdominal surgery. Chest 1997; 111: 564-571.