• Muslim kandel Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Thi- Qar University, Iraq
  • Zainab Ali kadhum Department of Medical Chemistry, College of Medicine, Thi- Qar University, Iraq


Urolithiasis, The chemical composition of urinary tract calculi


Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of urolithiasis in relation to patients six, age, and anatomical distribution of stones and to assess the chemical composition of urinary stones qualitatively to identify common type of urinary stone which prevalence in Nasiriyah city and how can provide the recurrence of stone formation if possible. Methods: Forty-four calculi obtained from 29 males and 15 females afflicted with Urolithiasis and admitted at Al Hussein Teaching Hospital, Thi-Qar governorate, Nasiriyah city, Iraq, from July 2010 to September 2011. Their ages ranged from 30 to 60 year. All samples analyzed qualitatively for ammonia, magnesium, phosphate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate, calcium salts (oxalate and non-oxalate), uric acid, xanthine, and cystine by adopting standard methods. Results: The study results showed that, the prevalence of stones was more in males (65.91%) than females (34.09%) with male to female ratio of 1.93:1 and the high occurrence in patients aged from 30 to 50 years. The anatomical distribution of urinary stones showed high percent in kidneys 52.27 % (23 patients) and bladder 47.73 % (21 patients), but it is absent in ureters and urethral (0.00 % ). All the stones were of  mixed type, of these stones contained 42 (95.46 %) calcium salts (oxalate and non oxalate), uric acid, and ammonium ion, 41(93.18 %) phosphate, 33 (75.00%) magnesium and magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP), 29 (65.91%) carbonate,  26 (50.00) xanthine, and 7 (15.91 % ) cystine. In addition, there are no differences in the chemical combustion between kidneys and bladder stones. Conclusion: Urolithiasis in Nasiriyah is a problem with high frequency in men than women and usually described as more frequent in age ranged 30 to 50 year and in kidneys and bladder than ureters and urethral. The majority of urinary stones types had a mixed type in which calcium salts (oxalate and non-oxalate), uric acid, ammonia phosphate and struvite were the predominant constituents related that both the metabolic disturbances and bacterial infection causes, which have the same majority and effect in the stone formation.


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