• Maysloon A . Al-Sadoon Department of Microbiology , College of Medicine , University of Basrah, Basrah - IRAQ


Over five months period , the incidence of rotaviral and protozoal  infections  in patients receiving treatment   for malignancy was investigated in the present study. A total  of 58 patients  [38 males and 20 females] were involved  in this study.  Formalin – ether  concentration method And direct smear method  were used  for diagnosis of  stool samples.           Higher rates of infection were Found among  those<2 years old ,and also among males than  Females .   In this study higher  rate of infection in rural than in urban area  was found  and majority of  them  with  mixed  parasitic  infections  . All  them  with symptomatic  and most patient which  positive for Rotavirus  with chronic diarrhea (66.7 % )  higher  than  discontinuous diarrhea    (33.3 % ).


- Chakravarti A . ,Chauhan MS., Sharma A ,Verma A. Distribution of human rotavirus G and P genotypes in a hospital from northern India .Southeast Asian J . Trop. Med. Public Health 2010 sep.,41 (5).1145-52 .

- Parashar UD , Hummelman EG , Bresee JS , Miller MA , Glass RI . Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children . Emerg Infect Dis . 2003 ;9:565 -72 .

- Butz AM, Fosarelli P, Dick J, Cusack T, Yolken R. Prevalence of rotavirus on high-risk fomites in day-care facilities. Pediatrics 1993;92:202-5.

- Leen –Jan van Doorn ,Bernhard Kleter ,Evert Hoefnagel , Isabelle Stainier , Annick Poliszczak , Brigitte Colan,and Wim Quint . Detection and genotyping of human Rotavirus VP4 and VP7 genes by reverse transcriptase PCR and reverse hybridization . J. Clin microbial . 2009 sep . 47 (9) : 2704 -2712 .

- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 2006;55(RR-12):1-13.

- Dennehy PH, Nelson SM, Crowley BA, Saracen CL. Detection of rotavirus RNA in hospital air samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). [1998 abstract The American Pediatric Society and The Society for Pediatric Research]. Pediatric Research 1998;43(Suppl 2):143A.

- Rodriguez WJ, Kim HW, Brandt CD, et al. Longitudinal study of rotavirus infection and gastroenteritis in families served by a pediatric medical practice: clinical and epidemiologic observations. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:170-6.

- Glass RI, Kilgore PE, Holman RC, et al. The epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in the United States: surveillance and estimates of disease burden. J Infect Dis 1996;174(suppl 1):S5-11.

- Saulsbury FT, Winkelstein JA, Yolken RH. Chronic rotavirus infection immunodeficiency. J Pediatr. 1980 Jul;97(1):61-5.

- Oishi I; Kimura T; Murakami T; Haruki K; Yamazaki K; Seto Y; Minekawa Y; Funamoto H; Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child. .Microbiol Immunol. 1991;35(11):953-61.

- Yolken RH, Bishop CA, Townsend TR, et al. Infectious gastroenteritis in bone-marrow-transplant recipients. New England Journal of Medicine 1982;306:1009-12.

- Kapikian AZ, Hoshino Y, Chanock RM. Rotaviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, et al, eds. Fields Virology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001 .

- Gleizes O, Desselberger U, Tatochenko V, et al. Nosocomial rotavirus infection in European countries: a review of the epidemiology, severity and economic burden of hospital-acquired rotavirus disease. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2006;25(1 Suppl):S12-21

- Marshall J, Botes J, Gorrie G, et al. Rotavirus detection and characterisation in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in aged-care facilities. Journal of Clinical Virology 2003;28:331-40

- Al – Megrin WA .Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia . Pak J Biol Sci. 2010 Apr 15;13(8):390-4..

- Snelling T, Cripps T, Macartney K, et al. Nosocomial rotavirus infection in an Australian children's h

- ROTTERDAM, H. & TSANG, P. - Gastrointestinal disease in the immunocompromised patient. Hum. Path., 25: 1123-1140, 1994 .

- SNELLER, M. & CLIFFORD, H. - Infections in the immunocompromised host. In:

RICH, R. Clinical immunology principles and practices. St Louis, Mosby, 1996. p. 579-593.

- Baron E.J. , Peterson L.R. , Finegold S.M. , Diagnostic microbiology , 9th Edition , United States of America ,Mosby Co. , 1994; 786 : 791 -2 .

- Garcia LS. And Bruckner D. A. ,Diagnostic medical parasitology ,2nd edition ,Washington , D .C ,United States of America ,1993 ;49 -57 .

- http://www.cure

- Malkin D., Cancers of Childhood , In :Devita V. T. ,Hellman S. , Rosenberg S .A .(Eds.) , Cancer principles and practice of oncology , Part 3 , 5th Edition Philadelphia , New York , Lippincott – Raven , 1997: p . 2083 – 91 .

- Yacoub A. ,AL – Sadoon I. , Hassan G . , et al , Depleted Uranium and health of people in Basrah : An epidemiological evidence , Med . J. Basrah Uni . , 1999 ;17 : 17 -25

- Campbell K ., Chronic Myeloid Leukemia , Leukemia Research found , 1997; p.7 .

- Karimi M, Mehrabani D, Yarmohammadi H, Jahromi FS. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of childhood leukemia and lymphoma in Fars Province, Southern Iran . Cancer Detect Prev. 2008;32(2):178-83. Epub 2008 Jul 16.

- Al-falahi RF (2002) .Role of Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under three year ,of age hospitalized in AL-Ramadi Matirnity and children Hospital. Diploma thesis. The Collage of Medicine .University of AL-Anbar.

- Ahmed HM , Coulter JB ,Nakagomi O., Hart CA ,Zaki JM . ,AL-Rabaty AA., Dove W. ,Cunliffe NA. Molecular characterization of Rotavirus gastroenteritis strains Iraqi Kurdistan .Emerg. Infect . Dis. 2006 May , 12(5) :824- 6 .

- Ali M. Kheyami, Toyoko Nakagomi, Osamu Nakagomi, Winifred Dove, C. Anthony Hart, and Nigel A. Cunliffe . Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus Diarrhea among Children in Saudi Arabia: First Detection of G9 and G12 Strains. J Clin Microbiol. 2008 April; 46(4): 1185–1191.

- Vesikari T., MakiM.,sarkkinen H.K., Arstila P.P and Halonen P.E .Rotavirus , Adenovirus ,and non- Viral enteropathogens in diarrhea . Arch. Dis. Child (1981); 56 : 264-270.

- Pabst WL., M. Altwegg , C . Kind , S. Mirjanic ,D. Hardegger and D .Nadal .(2003) .Prevalence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli among children with and without diarrhea in Switzerland .J . Clin .Microbiol . 41: 2289-2293 .

- Branth P.V. ,Steinsland H., Fischer T.K., Perch M ., Scheutz F., Dias F., Aaby P., Molbak K., and Sommerfelt H. (2003). Cohort Study of Guinean Children: Incidence, Pathogenicity, Conferred Protection, and Attributable Risk for Enteropathogens during the First 2 Years of Life . J .Clin . Microbiol. 2003 September; 41(9): 4238–4245.

- AL-Ani R.T.M. (2004) . Microbial causes of diarrhea in Neonates and Infants in Ramady city . M.Sc. Thesis .The collage of medicine University of AL-Anbar .

- Azab ME , Mohamed NH , Salem SA , Safan EH , Bebars MA, Sabry NH , et al . Parasitic infections associated with malignancy and leprosy . J .Egypt soc parasitol 1992 , 22 : 59 -70.

- Gilger MA, Matson DO, Conner ME, Rosenblatt HM, Finegold MJ, Estes MK Extraintestinal rotavirus infections in children with immunodeficiency. J Pediatr. 1992 Jun;120(6):912-7.