• Karim Nasir Hussain College of medicine-Al-Qadissyia University-Iraq


Background: Alcoholism hasn’t been a problem just for individuals,but it also has been a problem for families of the affected individuals.In recognizing such a result many studies have been produced to examine the genetic aspect of alcoholism. Objectives: To determine the importance role of genetic in alcoholism and to study the difference between those with positive and negative  family history of alcoholism. Methods: A cross sectional study that enrolled( 61) patients who met the diagnosis of alcoholism according to diagnostic criteria of structural clinical interview for diagnosis and statistical of mental disorder text revision (DSM-IV-TR). The patients who attended the psychiatric unit in Al-Diwaniya Teaching  Hospital for the period 1st  July, 2008 – 1st  June 2010. Results: This study revealed that (61) alcoholics admitted to hospital for treatment met the diagnosis of alcoholism according to the (DSM-IV-TR) were evaluated. The study revealed that 90% of the patients with positive family history of alcoholism reported antisocial behaviour, while those without family history reported only 16.13% antisocial behaviour.  Patients with family history of alcoholism showed more family problems and the reverse regarding psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: This study proveds that the association of psychiatric disorders as depression, severe anxiety and social phobia may occur with those without family history of alcoholism. We also noticed that patients with positive family history of alcoholism are of younger age of onset, with more symptoms of alcoholic dependence, tended to drink more, run more severe course and reported more antisocial behaviour.


Goldman, D., & Linnoila, M.(1986) Genetic approaches to alcoholism. Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 10:237-242.

Kaij, L. (1960) Studies on Aetiology and Sequels of Abuse of Alcohol. Lund Sweden, University of Lund.

Partanen, J. Brun K. and Markannan, T. (1966): A Study of Intelligence Personality and Use of Alcohol of Adult Twins, Helsinki: Finish Foundation for Alcohol Study.

Clifford , C. A., Fulker, D. W., Gurling, H.M.D., and Murray R. M., (1981), Preliminary Finding from Twin Study of Alcohol Use. In Gedda, L., Parisi, P., Nance, W.E. (ed), Twin Research, 3- Ala Liss, New York.

Goodwin, D.W., (1979). Is Alcoholism Hereditary? Oxford University Press. New York.

Cadoret, R. G., and Gath, A. (1978): Inheritance of Alcoholism in Adoptees. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 252-258.

Goodwin, D.W. The genetics of alcoholism: A state of the art review. Alcohol Health & Research World 2(3):2-12, 1978.American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV, Washington, DC: APA.

Cadoret, R. G., and Gath, A. (1978): Inheritance of Alcoholism in Adoptees. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 252-258.

Murray, R.M and Gurling, H.M.D., 2004, Genetic and Biological Aspects of Alcoholism, paper presented at the Spring Quaterly Meeting of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, Edinburgh.

Harada, S., Agarwal, D. P., Goedde, H. W., Ishikaw, B., (1999): Possible Protective Rule against Alcohol in Japan. Lancet, ii, 827.

Begletter,H.B.,Poresz,B.,Bihari,B.,kissin,B.,(1994:Event Related Brain Potentials in Boys at Risk for Alcoholism. Sciences,255:1493.

Winokur, G., Reich, T., and Rimmer, G., (1990): Alcoholism, III, Diagnosis and Familial Psychiatric Illness in 259 Alcoholic Proband. Archive of General Psychiatry, 23, 104-111.

Goodwin, D.W. Biological factors in alcohol use and abuse: Implications for recognizing and p reventing alcohol problems in adolescence. International Review of Psychiatry 1:41-49, 1989 14.Donovan, J.M., 2004, An Aetiological Model of Alcoholism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 1. Jan.

Branchey,L.,Branchey,H., Noumair,D.,(1989):The Age of Alcoholism Onset, Archives of General Psychiatry,46,No.3,P225.

Cloninger, C. R., Bohman, M. and Sigvardsson, S., (/1981): Inheritance of Alcohol Abuse: Archives of GeneralPsychiatry,36:861-868.

S.M. Lawrie: Companion to Psychiatric Study, 7th Ed., 2004. page 369-399.

Sadock and Kaplen, Comprehensive Text-book of Psychiatry, 2004.

Louis Appleby, Alcoholism and Alcoholism, post-graduate, 2nd Ed., 2004, p350.

Maghazaji, H. I., Zaidan, Z. A., and Younis, A.A., 1978, Alrazi Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neuropsychiatry Harada, S., Agarwal, D. P., Goedde, H. W., Ishikaw, B., (1999): Possible Protective Rule against Alcohol in Japan. Lancet, ii, 827.

Michael Gelder & Philip Cowen, Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse, Shorter Oxford Text-book, 4th Ed., 2004, p708.

Latcham, R. W., 1984, Familial Alcoholism Evidence from 237 Alcoholics, British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, p54-57.

Saunders, P.A., Copeland, J.R., Dewy, M.E., British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, p213-216.

Issa, F. A. 1983, Preliminary Report on Alcohol and Drug Addiction in Iraq (Arabic), Al-Razi Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgy 7. p5-9.

Cook, C.C., & Gurling, H.M. Candidate genes and favored loci for alcoholism. In: Cloninger, C.R., and Begleiter, H., eds. Genetics and Biology of Alcoholism: Banbury Report 33.New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1990. pp. 227-236.

Goldman, D. Molecular markers for linkage of genetic loci contributing to alcoholism. In: Galanter, M., ed. Recent Developments in Alcoholism. Vol. 6. New York: Plenum Press, 1988. pp. 333-349.

Blum, K.; Noble, E.P.; Sheridan, P.J.; Montgomery, A.; Ritchie, T.; Jagadeeswaran, P.; Nogami, H.; Briggs, A.H.; & Cohn, J.B. Allelic association of human dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. Journal of the American Medical Association 263(15):2055-2060,1990.

Comings, D.E.; Comings, B.G.; Muhleman, D.; Dietz, G.; Shahbahrami, B.; Tast, D.; Knell, E.; Kocsis, P.; Baumgarten, R.; Kovacs, B.W.; Levy, D.L.; Smith, M.; Borison, R.L.; Evans, D.D.; Klein, D.N.; MacMurray, J.; Tosk, J.M.; Sverd, J.; Gysin, R.; & Flanagan, S.D. The dopamine D2 receptor locus as a modifying gene in neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association 266(13):1793-1800, 1991..

Theodor E. A Stern, Psychopathy, Psychiatric Update and Preparation, 2007.

Schukit, M., Rimmer, J., Reich, T., and Winokur, E.; 2003, Alcoholism, Antisocial Traits in Mail Alcoholics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 117, p575-576.