MALIGNANT RENAL TUMORS IN IRAQ (CLINICAL & EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY)
AbstractPurpose: The purpose of this study is to highlights any changes in the clinical and epidemiological aspects of malignant renal tumors in Iraq in the last ten years. Methods: 86 patients included in this study , 30 patients in Tikrit center and 56 of them in Basra center, All have renal tumors and radical nephrectomy done for them. Results: The highest incidence is in age group 40-60 years old with younger age group in Basra. The commonest presenting symptom is haematuria and cigarette smoking is the major risk factor. Discussion: The male: female ratio is 1.3:1 in Iraq this may give better prognosis. Regarding age of the patients younger age in Basra and that might be attributed to higher exposure to radiation. The smoking increased the incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma .We have in Iraq higher incidence (40%) of Renal Cell Carcinoma in comparism to European countries and this, unfortunately, may have poorer prognosis. The incidental finding of Renal Tumors (19%) in this study in comparism to 50% in European countries, this percent can affect the prognosis and can be improved by improving the health care system and population health education.We have higher incidence of big tumors (10-15 cm) in comparism with other studies and also may affect the prognosis.
Chow WH, Devesass, Warren JL, Fruameni Jf Jr. Rising incidence of renal cell cancer in the United States. JAMA 2000; 281:1628-1631.
Jay son M, Sanders H. Increased incidence of serendipitously discovered renal cell carcinoma. J urology 1998; 51: 203-205.
Sene AP, hunt L, Mc Mahon RFT, etal. Renal Carcinoma in patients undergoing nephroectomy: analysis of survival and prognostic factors. Br. J. Urology. 1992; 70: 125-134.
Belldegrun A, dekernion JB. Renal Tumors in Walash PC, Retik AB, Wein AJ; Eds. Campbll`s Urology, 9th Edition Philadelphia: W.B Saunders, 2007; 1567-1636.
Result of Iraq Cancer Registry 1995-1997. Iraqi Cancer Board. Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq. 1999.
A.E Wefer, J. Wafer, B Freicks, MC Truss. Advances in uro_ radiological imaging. B.J. U. International 2002; volume 89 (5): 477-487.
Luciani LG, Cestari R, Tallarigo C. Incidental Renal Cell Carcinoma: age and stage charectrization and clinical implication. Study of 1092 patients 1952-1997. Urology 2000; 56: 58-62.
Lee CT, Katz J, Feam PA, Russo P. mode of presentation of renal cell carcinoma provides prognostic information. Urol. Oncol. 2002; 7: 135-140.
Homma Y, Kawabe K, Kitamura T, etal. Increased incidental detection and reduced mortality in renal cancer: Recent retrospectic analysis at 8 institutions Int. J Urol. 1995; 2: 77-80.
Richards D, Jones S. The kidneys. In: Sutton D; ed. A Textbook of radiology and imaging, 8th edition, London: Churchill Livingstone, 2007; 1131-1155.
Michael D. Beland, William W. Mayo Smith, Damian E. Dapuy. Diagnostic yield of 58 consecutive imaging guided biopsies of solid renal masses: Should we biopsies all that are indeterminate. AJR 2007; 188: 792-797.
Duchene DA, Lotan Y, Cadeddu JA Sagalowsky AI, Koene man KS. Histopathology of surgically managed renal tumors: analysis of a contemporary series. Urol. 2003; 62: 827-830.
Zhou M, Roma A, Magi_Galluzzic. The usefulness of immuno histopathological markers in the diffrential diagnosis of renal neoplasm. Clin Lab med 2005; 25: 247-257.
Lindblad P. Epidemiology of renal C.C. Scand. J Surgery (2004); 93: 88-96.
Rabbani Fetal. Temporal changes in risk of metachronous contra lateral R.C.C: influence of tumor characteristics and demographic factors. J. Clin. Oncol. 2002; 20: 2370.
T. Onishi, Y. Oishi, H Goto, S. Yandda and K. ABB. Gender as a prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma. BJU International 2002, 90: 32-36.
Uygur MC. Usubutun A. Ozen H. Ayhan A. Kendi S. prognostic factor and role of nephrectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Bxp clin cancer Res 1999; 18: 397-401.
La vaecchia C etal. Smoking and renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Res 1999; 50: 5231.
Yu Mc etal. Cigarette smoking, obesity, diuretic use and coffee consumption as a risk factors for renal cell carcinoma. J. Nati cancer Inst. 1986; 77: 351.
Thompson I, Fair W. Occupational & Environmental factors on bladder cancer: Scientific foundation of urology, 2nd ed. Heinemann Medical books. 1999.
Skinner DG etal. Diagnosis and Management of R.C.C. A clinical and pathological study of 309 cases. J urol 1972; 107: 705.
Lee C.T, Katz J, Fearn PA, Russo P. Mode of presentation of renal cell carcinoma provides prognostic information. Urol Oncol 2002; 7(4): 135-140.
Patard JJ, leray E, Rodriguez A, Rioux_ Lecler C9 N, G uille F, lobel B. Correlation between symptom graduation, tumor characteristic and survival in renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2003; 44(2): 226-232.
Raymond M. HSU, David Y. chan and Stanley S. Siegelman. Small Renal Cell Carcinoma; correlation of size with tumor stage, nuclear grade and histologic subtype. AJR 2004; 182: 551-557.
D Angio GJ etal: treatment of willm`s tumor: Results of the third National wilm`s tumor study. Cancer 1989; 64: 349.