• Haider Mohammed Fayadh Alyasiri Dept. of Medicine ,College of Medicine, Thi-Qar University


Background: Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) refers to changes in the mucosa of the stomach in patients with liver cirrhosis, it may present with a wide variety of manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe upper GIT bleeding. Patient and method: 50 patients with histological proven liver cirrhosis involved in this study .35patients (70%) were male while 15 patients(30%) were female. OGD was done for them which revealed 46% of them were affected with PHG irrespective to the cause of liver cirrhosis. all kinds of liver cirrhosis was taken in the study apart from those who took NSAIDs in the last two weeks to exclude other causes of erosive gastritis. Results:- PHG was found in 46% of the patients , it range from gastric fold edema in 12% to ,erosive hemorrhagic gastritis in 16% erythematous mucosa in 24%, petechiae in 30% to snake skin appearance in 36%. Conclusion: PHG is well known complication of liver cirrhosis that can be asymptomatic or  cause  other manifestations from dyspepsia to severe upper GIT bleeding  that must be treated.


- Papazian et al. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa. an endoscopic study. gut.1986.october; 1986;27(10):1199-1203.

- Iwao T, Toyonaga A, Sumino M, et al. "Portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with cirrhosis". Gastroenterology(1992) ;102 (6): 2060–5..

- K W BURAK, S S, LEE,; P L BECK Portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome. Gut 2001;49:866-872

- J E J Krige, I J Beckingham et al.Portal hypertension—1: varices.bmj.(2001). vol.322:10 feberuary .

- Orloff MJ, Orloff MS, Orloff SL, Haynes KS. Treatment of bleeding from portal hypertensive gastropathy by portacaval shunt. .hepatology.1995april;21(4):1011-7.

- Primignani M, Carpinelli L, Preatoni P, et al. . "Natural history of portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with liver cirrhosis. The New Italian Endoscopic Club for the study and treatment of esophageal varices (NIEC)". Gastroenterology(2000) 119 (1): 181–7.

- Cristina ripoll .et al .The management of portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia.international journal of gastroenterology and hepatology(2010 ):22 november.digestive and liver disease.

- Eroglu, Y.; Emerick, K. M.; Whitingon, P. F.; Alonso, E. M.Octreotide Therapy for Control of Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children. journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition(2004) :volume 38, issue 1 :pp. 41-47.

- Gin-Ho Lo. Mechanism of portal hypertensive gastropathy: journal of gastroenterology and hepatology.2009;24(9):1554-1558.

- Trevino, H.H. Brady III, C.E. ; Schenker, S Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy;. Dig Dis 1996;14:258-270 .

- K BURAK, S LEE, and P BECK. Portal hypertensive gastropathy and gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome. Gut (2001); 49(25): 49: 866-872

- McCormick PA, Ooi H, Crosbie O .Transexamic acid for severe bleeding gastric antra ectasia in cirrhosis vascular. Gut(1998). 42 (5): 750–2.

- Andre De Wolf & Michael Abecassis. antifibrinolytic drugs in liver transplant . Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology(2007);( 4), 422-423.

- Ehab H. Nashaat, Hossam Abd-Elaziz&Manal Sabry. Non-Endoscopic Predictors of Esophageal Varices and Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy. scientific public journal . Volume 8 - Number 6 (Cumulated No. 39), June 1, 2010

- Aboul-Wafa HM. Fikry E,... Congestive gastropathy in portal hypertension: variations in prevalence. American journal of gastroenterology( 1988); (83):1235-9.

- Sato T, Yamazaki K, Toyota J, et al. (2005). "Efficacy of argon plasma coagulation for gastric antral vascular ectasia associated with chronic liver disease". Hepatol. Res. 32 (2): 121–6.

- Urata J, Yamashita Y, Tsuchigame T, et al. (1998). "The effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt on portal hypertensive gastropathy". J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13 (10): 1061–7.

- Cho Sarah; Zanati Simon et al. Endoscopic cryotherapy for the management of gastric antral vascular ectasia. Gastrointestinal endoscopy 2008;68(5):895-902.

- Garcia N, Sanyal AJ (2001). "Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy and Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia". Current treatment options in gastroenterology 4 (2): 163–171.

- Gupta R, Sawant P, Parameshwar RV, Lele VR, Kulhalli PM, Mahajani SS (1998). "Gastric mucosal blood flow and hepatic perfusion index in patients with portal hypertensive gastropathy". J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13 (9): 921–6.

- Bini EJ, Lascarides CE, Micale PL, Weinshel EH (2000). "Mucosal abnormalities of the colon in patients with portal hypertension: an endoscopic study". Gastrointest. Endosc. 52 (4): 511