HALITOSIS (BAD BREATH)A CLINICAL STUDY
AbstractThis is a prospective study done in the period between the 1st of December 2003 to 30th of November 2005, it includes 323 patient. One hundred fifteen patients complaining of oral disorders, comprises 35.6% of all the studied patients, while 208 patient had extra oral disorder (64.4%). From those with extra oral diseases, 162 patients had otorhinolaryngological disorder comprises (78%), and the remaining 46 patients had medical disease (22%). The commonest cause of oral disorders was periodontal disease (42 patients = 37%), the commonest cause of otolaryngological disorders was tonsillitis (39 patients =24%), while commonest medical cause of halitosis was bronchitis (11 patients =24%). The mean age pf presentation of halitosis caused by oral disease, was 46.2 year, otolaryngological diseases was 27.9 years and for medical diseases was 46.6 years. Commonly the patient with halitosis presented in the cold months (230 patients of them presented in the period between October and April =71% from all the studied patients).
- Bosy A, Kulkarni GV, Rosenburg M, McCulloch CA. Relationship of oral malodour to peiodentitis: evidence of independence in discrete subpopulation. Journal of Periodontoogy, 1994; 65: 37-46.
- Meskin LH. A breath of freshair. Journal of American Dentistry Association. 1996; 127: 1282-1286.
- Miyazaki H, Sakao S, Kotoh Y, Takehara T. Oral malodour in the general population in Japan. In: Rosenburg M (ed.): bad breath: Research perspectives, 1995; pp.119-136. Tel Aviv: Ramot.
- Morita M, Wang HL. Association between malodour and adult periodentitis. J-Clin-Periodetol. 2002; 28(4): 813-819.
- Meningaud JP, Bado F, Faure E, Bertrand JC, Guilbert F. Halitosis in 1999. Rev-Stomatol-Chir-Maxillofac. 1999; 100(5): 240-244.
- Ronald SP. Halitosis. In: Special topics in otolaryngology, North America Clinic of Otolaryngology. 1998: 111-117.
- Thomas I, Goldman I. Oral pathology, 5th ed., CV Mosby Company, St. Louis. 1960: 931-944.
- Murta T, Yamaga T, Tida T, Migazaki H, Yaegaki K. Classification and examination of halitosis. Ant-Dent-J. 2002; 52(3): 181-186.
- Quirynen M, Zhao H, Van SD. Review of treatment of oral malodour. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2002; 69: 374-382.
- Yaekaki K, Coil JM. Classification, and treatment of halitosis; clinical perspective. J Can Dent Assoc. 2000; 66: 257-261.
- Eli I, Baht R, Kazlousky A, Rosenburg M. The complaint of oral malodour; possible psychopathological aspect. Psychosomatic medicine. 1996; 58: 156-159.
- Yaegaki K. Oral malodour and periodontal disease. In: Rosenburg M. ed. Bad breath: research perspectives. Tel Aviv; Ramot publishing. 1995: 87-108.
- Rosenburg M, Septon I, Eli I, Bar-Ness R, Gelemter I, Brenner S, Gabbay J. Halitosis measurement by an industrial sulphide monitor. J Periodentol. 1991; 62: 487-489.
- Tonzetich J. Production and origin of oral malodour; a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis. J Periodentol. 1977; 48: 13-20.
- Sculty C, El-Maaytah M, Porter SR, Greenman J. Breath odour etiopathogenesis, assessment and management. Euro-J-Oral-Sci. 1997; 105: 287-293.
- Carmona T, Limeres Posse, Diz DP, Fernandez FJ, Garcia V. Extra oral aetiology of halitosis. Med-Oral. 2001; 6(1): 40-47.
- Hanker J, Schuster F, Nessler K. Successful treatment of gut-caused halitosis with suspension of living non pathogenic E-coli: a case report. Euro-J-Pediatr. 2001; 160(10): 592-594.
Copyright (c) 2022 University of Thi-Qar Journal Of Medicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.