The Effect of Age and Birth Order on Speech and Learning on Autistic Children in Thi-Qar Governorate
AbstractAutism spectrum disorders (ASD ) are broad spectrum of conditions characterized by impairment in reciprocal social communication and interaction and restricted , repetitive patterns of behavior ,language and interest . Aim: To assess the effect of age on speech and learning among autistic children, and to find out the relationship between mean birth order and its effect on speech and learning . Patients and methods : A prospective case study was conducted at Thi-Qar governorate , south of Iraq through the period from January 2018 to May 2019 .The study involved 70 autistic child (50 boys and 20 girls) from Thi-Qar autistic children center at Al-Nassiryah city . Specialized designed questionnaire used including gender , age at time of present study , order in the family ,speech ( any non-fluent speech considered speech defect ) and learn defect and finally the residence of patients either from Al-Nassiriyah center or from the periphery .The data was collected by direct interview in the presence of one or both parents . Statistical tests used including : the mean ,slandered deviation ( S. D ) , a NOVA test and P value ( < 0.05 significant ). Result : Among 70 autistic child , 50 ( 71.4% ) were boys and 20 ( 28.6%) were girls. The mean age for boys were( 5.3 years) and (6 years ) for girls .The mean birth order for boys was ( 2.6 ) and ( 2.9 ) for girls . Among autistic children 56 ( 80% ) with speech defect with mean age ( 5.1 years ) , while 14 ( 20% ) without speech defect with mean age ( 7 years ) .The mean birth order for autistic children with speech defect was ( 2.9 ) ,while the mean only ( 2 ) for those without speech defect . Among autistic children 47 ( 67% ) were with learn defect with mean age ( 5.5 years ) , while 23 ( 33% ) were without learn defect with mean age ( 5.4 years ) .The mean birth order for autistic children with learn defect was ( 2.8 ),while only ( 2.4 ) for those without learn defect . Most autistic children from Al-Nassiriyah 35( 50% ) , 19 ( 27.1 ) from Shatra , 6 ( 8.6% ) from Suq Al-Sheyokh , from Al-Rifae 5 ( 7.1% ), 2 ( 2.9% ) from Cheybaish and three cases( 4.3% 0 from other areas . Conclusion: Autism more in boys than girls similar to those reported by other studies . Boys diagnosed earlier than girls and most of autistic children suffering from speech and learn defect .Mean age was significant for those with speech defect , while not for those with learn defect . Mean birth order was significant in autistic children with speech defect while not for those with learn defect . fifty percent of our cases were from central of Thi-Qar governorate .
- Sener ,E.F.;Oztop, D.B. and Ozku, Y. (2014 )B.MTHFR gene C677T polymorphysim in autism spectrum disorders .Gene . Res. International ;2014:1-5.
- Giuseppe J Raviola ,Michael L.Ttiu ,David R.DeMaso ,Heather J. Walter. Autism Sepctrum Disorder .In:Kliegman R M,Stanson B MD,Geme J.S, Schor .Nelson textbook of pediatrics;20th ed.Philadelphia , Elsevier .2016; 176-183 .
- , P.;Kamali.E.;Mousavi,S.M. and Karahmadi, M.( 2017). Ennviromental factors influencing the risk of autism . J .Res .Med .;22:27 .
- Polšek D, Jagatic T, Cepanec M, Hof PR, Simić G. Recent developments in neuropathology of autism spectrum disorder. Transl Neurosci. 2011; 2: 256–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Nickl-Jockschat T, Michel TM. The role of neurotrophic factors in autism. Mol Psychiatry 2011; 16: 478–90. doi: 10.1038/mp.2010.103 [PubMed .
- Chauhan A, Chauhan V. Oxidative stress in autism. Pathophysiology 2006; 13: 171–81. [PubMed]
- Kern JK, Jones AM. Evidence of toxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal insult in autism. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev2006; 9: 485–99[PubM ]
- - Park, H.R.; Lee, J.M. ; Moon, H.E. ; 7Lee, D.S. ; Kim, B .N. ; Kim, J. ; Kim, D.G. and Paek, S.H. (2016). A Short Review on the Current Understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Exp. Neurobiol.; 25(1):1-13.
- Warrier, V.; Chee, V.; Smith, P.; Chakrabarti, B. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2015). A comprehensive meta-analysis of common genetic variants in autism spectrum conditions. Mol. Autism; 6:49.
- Matson, J.L. and Kozlowski, A.M. (2010). Autistic regression. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders; 4:340–345.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013 ) .Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed ).Arlington ,AV: American Psychiatric Publishing .
- Dryden-Edwards, R.(2014).Autism spectrum disorder (in children and adult).Retrievedfrom http//www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8041&pf=2 .
- (Bjorklund and Chartrand, 2016). Bjorklund, G. and Chartrand, M. (2016). Nutritional and environmental influences on autism spectrum disorder. J. Nut. Dis. Therapy.; 6:1.
- National institute of mental health .(2011) .Apparent guide to autism spectrum disorder.RetrievedMarch8,2012,from :http//www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/aparents-giude-to-autismspectrum-disorder/index.shtml .
- Be aware of potentially dangerous products and therapies that claim to treat aitism .(n/d).Retrieved May 28, 2019 ,from : http//www.fda.gov/consumers /consumer-updates/be=-aware-potentially dangerous –products-and-therapies-claim –teart –autism .
- Mezzelani, A.; Raggi, M.E. ; Marabotti, A. ; Milanesi, L. and Ochratoxin, A. (2016). possible factor trigging autism and its male prevalence via epigenetic mechanism. Nut. Neurosci.;19(1):43–46.
- Al Farsi Y.M. et al. J. Autism Dev.Disord.41,821-825 ( 2011 ) PubMed.
- McFayden TC, Fork,M,Ollendick TH.The impact of Birth Order on Language Development in Autistic children from simplex Families .J Autism Dev.Disord.2021 Sep 8 doi:10.1007/s10803-021-05274-4.Epub ahead of print .PMID:34498150 .
- Cagaty,U.,Aysegul,T.,Zeynep,G.,Ozden,S.U.,2019Birthorder and reproductive stoppage in families of children with autism spectrum disorders.Psychiatr.Clin.Psychopharmocal.29(4),509-514.
- American Academy of pediatrics.( 2015). Age at autism diagnosis differs between boys,girls.ScienceDailyfrom: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/20/15/04/150424282155.htm.
- Wan C.Y. et al.PLoS One 6,e25505 (2011 ) PubMed .
- Wodka E.L.et al. pediatrics 131 ,e1128-1134 ( 2013 ) PubMed .
- Car Autism Roadmap –intellectaul Disabilities and ASD – 2008 .
- https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268144270-The Effect of Birth Order On Cognitive Ability and Symptom Severity in Children with Autism .
- Hsu, YH.,Chen, CW.,Lin,YJ. Et al .Urban-Rural Disparity in the Incedence of Diagnosed Autism Spectrum Disorder in Taiwan :A 10-Year National Birth Cohort Follow-up Study .J.Autism Dev Disord ( 2022 ) . https://doi.org./10.1007/s10803-022-05453.
- Lauritsen MB,Astrup A ,Pedersen CB,Obel C Schendel DE ,Schieve L Yeargin-Allsopp M,Parner ET,Urbanicity and autism spectrum disorders .J Autism Dev.Disord. 2014 Feb;394-404.doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1875-y.PMID:23807204;PMCID:PMC4511947.
Copyright (c) 2022 University of Thi-Qar Journal Of Medicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.