Vitamin D Deficiency and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19
Keywords:COVID-19, severity, 25OH-Vitamin D, CR-Protein, inflammatory response
AbstractBackground: COVID-19, also known as the new coronavirus, has been linked to a variety of clinical outcomes, including moderate respiratory symptoms, severe respiratory failure, multi-organ failure, and death. The disease's severity can vary depending on a number of factors, including age, pre-existing medical disorders, and immunological function. Aim: The aim of this study was to monitor the 25OH-Vitamin D serum level with clinical outcomes including CRP for patent’s infected with SARS-CoV-2. Method: In this study a total of 59 patients and 25 normal cases (for control) were enrolled for investigation the role of Vitamin D in the disease severity in patients infected with SARS-Cov-2. Results: The result showed a significant decrease of vitamin D in abnormal group compared with normal group (15.74±5.63 vs 33.41±12.18 ng/dl, p = 0.0001). Additionally, the patients in infected group (6.7±12.64) had significantly (p<0.0001) lower CRP level in comparison with control group (1.77±3.12). There are no significant differences reported (0.612) in ages between the infected COVID-19 group 38.35±6.15 and control group (37.85 ± 7.28). Furthermore, The RT-PCR had no significantly reported differences between COVID-19 cases and control group 29.98±5.25 vs 39.89 ± 5.01. Conclusion: we found that COVID-19 patients with vitamin D deficiency were more likely to increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection and complications; it helps regulate the body's inflammatory response, which is important in fighting off infections.
Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, Xiang J, Wang Y, Song B, Gu X, Guan L, Wei Y, Li H, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd; 2020; 395: 1054–62. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3.
da Rosa Mesquita R, Francelino Silva Junior LC, Santos Santana FM, Farias de Oliveira T, Campos Alcântara R, Monteiro Arnozo G, Rodrigues da Silva Filho E, Galdino dos Santos AG, Oliveira da Cunha EJ, Salgueiro de Aquino SH, Freire de Souza CD. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in the general population: systematic review. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2021; 133: 377–82. doi: 10.1007/s00508-020-01760-4.
Fotuhi M, Mian A, Meysami S, Raji CA. Neurobiology of COVID-19. J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2020; 76: 3–19. doi: 10.3233/JAD-200581.
Shastri J, Parikh S, Aggarwal V, Agrawal S, Chatterjee N, Shah R, Devi P, Mehta P, Pandey R. Severe SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Reinfection With Delta Variant After Recovery From Breakthrough Infection by Alpha Variant in a Fully Vaccinated Health Worker. Front Med. 2021; 8: 1–13. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.737007.
Fateh HL, Ali AM. Association between diet quality and BMI with side e ff ects of P fi zer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G titers. 2022; . doi: 10.1108/NFS-09-2022-0338.
Eaaswarkhanth M, Al Madhoun A, Al-Mulla F. Could the D614G substitution in the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein be associated with higher COVID-19 mortality? Int J Infect Dis [Internet]. International Society for Infectious Diseases; 2020; 96: 459–60. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.071.
Ali AM, Tofiq AM, Rostam HM, Ali KM TH. Reply to Letter to the Editor on disease severity and efficacy of homologous vaccination among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron VOCs, compared to unvaccinated using main biomarkers. J Med Virol. 2022; . doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28313.
Elibol E, Baran H. The relation between serum D-dimer, ferritin and vitamin D levels, and dysgeusia symptoms, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. J Laryngol Otol. 2021; 135: 45–9. doi: 10.1017/S0022215120002765.
Patanavanich R, Glantz SA. Smoking is associated with COVID-19 progression: A meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020; 22: 1653–6. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntaa082.
Ahmed M, Saeed H, Ali AM, Ali KM, Rostam HM. The Impact of Smoking on COVID-19 Severity : A Multi-Analysis Study. 2023; 6: 229–39.
Anand P, Stahel VP. Review the safety of Covid-19 mRNA vaccines: a review. Patient Saf Surg. Patient Safety in Surgery; 2021; 15: 1–9. doi: 10.1186/s13037-021-00291-9.
Ali AM, Tofiq AM, Rostam HM, Ali KM, Tawfeeq HM. Disease severity and efficacy of homologous vaccination among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron VOCs, compared to unvaccinated using main biomarkers. J Med Virol [Internet]. 2022; : 0–1. doi: 10.1002/jmv.28098.
Kim D. The role of vitamin D in thyroid diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18: 1–19. doi: 10.3390/ijms18091949.
Yin K, Agrawal DK. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases. J Inflamm Res [Internet]. 2014; 7: 69–87. doi: 10.2147/JIR.S63898.
Liu LCY, Voors AA, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Van Der Veer E, Belonje AM, Szymanski MK, Sillj HHW, Van Gilst WH, Jaarsma T, De Boer RA. Vitamin D status and outcomes in heart failure patients. Eur J Heart Fail. 2011; 13: 619–25. doi: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfr032.
Ali HN, Ali KM, Rostam HM, Ali AM, Tawfeeq HM, Fatah MH, Figueredo GP. Clinical laboratory parameters and comorbidities associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Pract Lab Med [Internet]. Elsevier B.V.; 2022; 31: e00294. doi: 10.1016/j.plabm.2022.e00294.
Parlak E, Ertürk A, Çağ Y, Sebin E, Gümüşdere M. The effect of inflammatory cytokines and the level of vitamin D on prognosis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8: 18302–10.
Wruck W, Adjaye J. Detailed phylogenetic analysis tracks transmission of distinct SARS-COV-2 variants from China and Europe to West Africa. Sci Rep [Internet]. Nature Publishing Group UK; 2021; 11: 1–13. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-00267-w.
Ali AM, Ali KM, Fatah MH, Tawfeeq HM, Rostam HM. SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in patients negative for immunoglobulin G following recovery from COVID-19. New Microbes New Infect [Internet]. Elsevier Ltd; 2021; 43: 100926. doi: 10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100926.
Larijani B, Hossein-Nezhad A, Feizabad E, Maghbooli Z, Adibi H, Ramezani M, Taheri E. Vitamin D deficiency, bone turnover markers and causative factors among adolescents: A cross-sectional study. J Diabetes Metab Disord [Internet]. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders; 2016; 15: 1–6. doi: 10.1186/s40200-016-0266-2.
Ali KM, Ali AM, Tawfeeq HM, Figueredo GP, Rostam HM. Hypoalbuminemia in patients following their recovery from severe coronavirus disease 2019. J Med Virol. 2021; 93: 4532–6. doi: 10.1002/jmv.27002.
Daneshkhah A, Agrawal V, Eshein A, Subramanian H, Roy HK, Backman V. The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients. medRxiv [Internet]. 2020; 25: 2020.04.08.20058578. Available from https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.08.20058578v4%0Ahttps://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.08.20058578v4.abstract
Di Serio F, Lovero R, D’Agostino D, Nisi L, Miragliotta G, Contino R, Man A, Ciccone MM, Santacroce L. Evaluation of procalcitonin, Vitamin D and C-reactive protein levels in septic patients with positive emocoltures. Our preliminary experience. Acta Medica Mediterr. 2016; 32: 1911–4. doi: 10.19193/0393-6384_2016_6_182.
Ali AM, Rostam HM, Fatah MH, Noori CM, Ali KM, Tawfeeq HM. Serum troponin, D-dimer, and CRP level in severe coronavirus (COVID-19) patients. Immunity, Inflamm Dis. 2022; 10: 1–10. doi: 10.1002/iid3.582.
Xu S, Song J, Zhang ZH, Fu L, Gao L, Xie DD, Yu DX, Xu DX, Sun GP. The Vitamin D status is associated with serum C-reactive protein and adhesion molecules in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Sci Rep [Internet]. Springer US; 2019; 9: 1–11. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53399.
Malik P, Patel U, Mehta D, Patel N, Kelkar R, Akrmah M, Gabrilove JL, Sacks H. Biomarkers and outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalisations: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Evidence-Based Med. 2021; 26: 107–8. doi: 10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111536.