Evaluation of antibacterial activity of cinnamon and ginger extracts against vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nose of food handlers in restaurants and cafeterias


  • Uday Abdul-Reda Hussein Department of Clinical Laboratory Science / College of Pharmacy / Thi-Qar University/ Iraq


Food handlers, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, VRSA, Nasal carriage, Cinnamon, Ginger and Antibacterial activity


Background: Food handlers are the main source of Staphylococcal food poisoning in developed countries.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the nasal carriage of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among food handlers in restaurants and cafeterias, and to evaluate of antibacterial activity of cinnamon and ginger extracts against these bacteria.

Material and Methods: A total of 100  nasal swabs were collected from healthy food handlers and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus ,methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) using standard methods. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of each plant were prepared by using a Soxhalet apparatus and the antibacterial activities of these extracts against VRSA were determined by using agar well diffusion method.

Results: of 100 nasal swabs, 30 (30%) isolates were Staphylococcus aureus , among which 25 (83.3%) isolates were MRSA, and 20 (80%) isolates among MRSA were VRSA. Both plant extracts showed potent antibacterial activity against VRSA. Cinnamon extracts showed higher antibacterial activity when compared with ginger extracts , whereas  ethanolic extract of each plant was more effective than that of aqueous extract.

Conclusion: This study revealed a relatively high prevalence rate of VRSA nasal carriage among food handlers. Cinnamon and ginger are rich source of antimicrobial compounds which can be used as natural food preservatives and to treat infections caused by these bacteria .


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