Impact of Rheumatoid Arthritis on Some Immunological Aspects and Lipid Profile of Type 2 Diabetes in Nasiriyh City, Iraq
Keywords:Rheumatoid arthritis, Diabetes mellitus, 1,5-Anhydroglucitol, HbA1c, lipid profile
AbstractBackground: Rheumatoid arthritis A systemic autoimmune disease causes polyarthritis and organ damage. Insulin resistance is associated with inflammatory indicators. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a biomarker for continuous glucose monitoring, and 1,5-ahydroglucitol are found in the blood in high but consistent amounts under normal conditions. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs raise lipid levels. The aim of study was to evaluate whether or not there is a relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus, using many immunological and biochemical criteria. Methods: Current research on rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus was conducted at Al-Nasriyah Education Hospital with one hundred blood samples collected from patients. Divided into four groups, this study employed immunological (1,5-anhydroglucitol) and biochemical (random blood sugar, total triglyceride, and total cholesterol) data. Result: In the current study, the control group had more 1,5-anhydroglucitol than the patients. significant increases in random blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HbA1c in patients with only diabetes and patients with both diseases, as well as a significant difference between rheumatoid patients and controls. Conclusion: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have low 1,5-ahydroglucrtol levels may be strong predictors of diabetes mellitus. Rheumatoid arthritis patients may have an effect on lipid profiles, HbA1c percentages, and 1,5-ahydroglucrtol levels, which should be evaluated throughout the illness.
McInnes IB, Schett G. Pathogenetic insights from the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet. 2017;389(10086):2328–37.
van den Oever IAM, Baniaamam M, Simsek S, Raterman HG, van Denderen JC, van Eijk IC, et al. The effect of anti-TNF treatment on body composition and insulin resistance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2021;41:319–28.
Tejera-Segura B, López-Mejías R, de Vera-González AM, Jiménez-Sosa A, Olmos JM, Hernández JL, et al. Relationship between insulin sensitivity and β-cell secretion in nondiabetic subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2019;46(3):229–36.
Cai W, Tang X, Pang M. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Med. 2022;9.
De Oliveira PG, Farinon M, Sanchez-Lopez E, Miyamoto S, Guma M. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes glucose metabolism as a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Front Immunol. 2019;10:1743.
Chehregosha H, Khamseh ME, Malek M, Hosseinpanah F, Ismail-Beigi F. A view beyond HbA1c: role of continuous glucose monitoring. Diabetes Ther. 2019;10:853–63.
Huang Z, Liu Y, Mao Y, Chen W, Xiao Z, Yu Y. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte survival in type 2 diabetes mellitus determined by a modified carbon monoxide breath test. J Breath Res. 2018;12(2):26004.
Renz PB, Chume FC, Timm JRT, Pimentel AL, Camargo JL. Diagnostic accuracy of glycated hemoglobin for gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2019;57(10):1435–49.
Al-seidi FA. The incidence of proteinuria among diabetic patients in relation to the level of glycated Hb, duration of the disease& types of treatment in Thi-Qar province. J THI-QAR Sci. 2016;5(4).
Selvin E, Rawlings A, Lutsey P, Maruthur N, Pankow JS, Steffes M, et al. Association of 1, 5-anhydroglucitol with cardiovascular disease and mortality. Diabetes. 2016;65(1):201–8.
Hassanein M, Shafi T. Assessment of glycemia in chronic kidney disease. BMC Med. 2022;20(1):1–9.
Suzuki S, Koga M. Glycemic control indicators in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2014;5(2):198.
Lorenzatti AJ, Toth PP. New perspectives on atherogenic dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease. Eur Cardiol Rev. 2020;15.
Ghaben AL, Scherer PE. Adipogenesis and metabolic health. Nat Rev Mol cell Biol. 2019;20(4):242–58.
Myasoedova E. Lipids and lipid changes with synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: implications for cardiovascular risk. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2017;29(3):277–84.
Makkar R, Behl T, Kumar A, Uddin MS, Bungau S. Untying the correlation between apolipoproteins and rheumatoid arthritis. Inflamm Res. 2021;70:19–28.
Venetsanopoulou AI, Pelechas E, Voulgari P V, Drosos AA. The lipid paradox in rheumatoid arthritis: the dark horse of the augmented cardiovascular risk. Rheumatol Int. 2020;40(8):1181–91.
Yoshida T, Hashimoto M, Kawahara R, Yamamoto H, Tanaka M, Ito H, et al. Non-obese visceral adiposity is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. Rheumatol Int. 2018;38(9):1679–89.
Ferraz-Amaro I, González-Juanatey C, López-Mejias R, Riancho-Zarrabeitia L, González-Gay MA. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013.
Shimizu H, Shouzu A, Nishikawa M, Omoto S, Hayakawa T, Miyake Y, et al. Serum concentration and renal handling of 1, 5-anhydro-D-glucitol in patients with chronic renal failure. Ann Clin Biochem. 1999;36(6):749–54.
Ajlan SK, Qasim SK. Evaluation Of Serum 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol Levels among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Basrah. Univ Thi-Qar J Med. 2020;19(1):106–19.
Pramodkumar TA, Jayashri R, Gokulakrishnan K, Velmurugan K, Pradeepa R, Anjana RM, et al. Relationship of glycemic control markers-1, 5 anhydroglucitol, fructosamine, and glycated hemoglobin among Asian Indians with different degrees of glucose intolerance. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2016;20(5):690.
Noah K, Hmood F, Zainal I. Estimation and isolation of ceruloplasmin and some biochemical indicators in diabetes mellitus type II patients compared to healthy controls in Kirkuk Province, Iraq. Med J Babylon. 2020;17(1):49.
Hadi HS, Enayah SH. Effects of Covid-19 Infection on Some Pancreatic Functions in Diabetic Patients at Thi-Qar Province/Iraq. Univ Thi-Qar J Sci. 2022;9(2):66–74.
Joshi SC, Pozzilli P. COVID-19 induced diabetes: A novel presentation. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2022;110034.
Wondmkun YT. Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes: associations and therapeutic implications. Diabetes, Metab Syndr Obes targets Ther. 2020;13:3611.
Ng JM, Cooke M, Bhandari S, Atkin SL, Kilpatrick ES. The effect of iron and erythropoietin treatment on the A1C of patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(11):2310–3.
Khadim RM, Al-Fartusie FS. Evaluation of Liver Function and Lipid profiles in Iraqi patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing; 2021. p. 12040.
Popa C, van Tits LJH, Barrera P, Lemmers HLM, van den Hoogen FHJ, Van Riel P, et al. Anti-inflammatory therapy with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors improves high-density lipoprotein cholesterol antioxidative capacity in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68(6):868–72.
Jedda WAAL, Al-Ali ZAJR, Akram RS. Study the Interferon–γ, C-reactive Protein and Lipid Profile in Iraqi Diabetic Patients With and Without Hypertension. NVEO-NATURAL VOLATILES Essent OILS Journal| NVEO. 2021;8820–32.
Majid A, Sayer SA, Farhood HB. Study of some biochemical parameters for patients with type ii diabetes mellitus in thi-qar governorate, iraq. J Pharm Sci Res. 2018;10(11):2938–41.