Molecular Analysis of Virulence Genes Lux S, Rsb A and Mrpa in Proteus Mirabilis Isolated from Different Clinical Samples


  • Sarab Ismael Sheed AL-Jubouri Babylon university college of medicine Iraq
  • Bushra J.AL-Tamimi Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq


Proteus mirabilis, lux s, rsm A and mrp A genes detection, Vitek 2 system


: The research endeavour involved the collection of a total of 100 samples from diverse
clinical origins. Specifically, 70 urine samples were obtained from patients, while 20 samples were
derived from wounds. Additionally, 10 samples were acquired through ear swabs from patients enrolled
in private clinics, Imam Sadiq Hospital, and Al-Hilla Hospitals. The data collection period spanned from
November 2023 to December 2024.
Out of the hundred samples that were analyzed, it was observed that a significant majority, specifically
eighty samples (80%), exhibited positive bacterial cultures. Conversely, a smaller proportion of the
samples, precisely twenty samples (20%), did not exhibit any growth of bacteria. The findings of this
study indicate the potential existence of microorganisms, including viruses, fungi, and other anaerobic
agents, which could pose challenges in terms of culturing or may be attributed to variations in the sizes
and compositions of the samples. Utilizing the Vitek 2 methodology, selective media, and biochemical
assays, it was observed that out of the eighty-nine samples analyzed, a subset of twenty samples
exhibited positive outcomes, suggesting Proteus mirabilis presence. The detection of luxS, rsmA, and
mrpA genes in Proteus mirabilis was accomplished using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


Bonnin RA, Girlich D, Jousset AB, Gauthier L, Cuzon G, Bogaerts P et al (2020) A single Proteus mirabilis

lineage from human and animal sources: a hidden reservoir of OXA-23 or OXA-58 carbapenemases in

Enterobacterales. Sci Rep 10(1):1–9.

Li Z, Peng C, Zhang G, Shen Y, Zhang Y, Liu C et al (2022) Prevalence and characteristics of

multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis from broiler farms in Shandong Province, China. Poult Sci


Hasan TH, Alasedi KK, Jaloob AA (2021) Proteus mirabilis virulence factors. Int J Pharm Res 13(1):2145–

Yuan F, Huang Z, Yang T, Wang G, Li P, Yang B et al (2021) Pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis in catheterassociated urinary tract infections. Urol Int 105(5-6):354–361.

Humphries R, Bobenchik AM, Hindler JA, Schuetz AN (2021) Overview of changes to the clinical and

laboratory standards institute performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, M100. J Clin

Microbiol 59(12):e00213.

Algammal AM, Hashem HR, Alfifi KJ, Hetta HF, Sheraba NS, Ramadan H et al (2021) atpD gene sequencing,

multidrug resistance traits, virulence-determinants, and antimicrobial resistance genes of emerging XDR and

MDR-Proteus mirabilis. Sci Rep 11(1):1–15.

Shelenkov A, Petrova L, Fomina V, Zamyatin M, Mikhaylova Y, Akimkin V (2020) Multidrug-resistant

Proteus mirabilis strain with cointegrate plasmid. Microorganisms


Mirzaei A, Nasr Esfahani B, Raz A, Ghanadian M, Moghim S (2021) From the urinary catheter to the

prevalence of three classes of integrons, β-lactamase genes, and differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of

Proteus mirabilis and clonal relatedness with Rep-PCR. Biomed Res Int


Critchley IA, Cotroneo N, Pucci MJ, Jain A, Mendes RE (2020) Resistance among urinary tract pathogens

collected in Europe during 2018. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 23:439–

Lin M-F, Liou M-L, Kuo C-H, Lin Y-Y, Chen J-Y, Kuo H-Y (2019) Antimicrobial susceptibility and

molecular epidemiology of Proteus mirabilis isolates from three hospitals in Northern Taiwan. Microb Drug

Resist 25(9):1338–1346.

Filipiak A, Chrapek M, Literacka E, Wawszczak M, Głuszek S, Majchrzak M et al (2020) Pathogenic factors

correlate with antimicrobial resistance among clinical Proteus mirabilis strains. Front Microbiol


Al-Dulaimi MTS, Al-Taai HRR (2020) Detection of some virulence factors and antibiotics susceptibility of

Proteus mirabilis isolated from different clinical sources in Baquba. Biochem Cell Arch 20(1):803–

Jaber AH, Almiyah SAF (2022) Molecular detection of some virulence genes for Proteus mirabilis bacteria

isolated from diabetic foot ulcers. Eurasian Med Res Period 8:59–67 ISSN: 2795-7624 (E).

Cahan, E. As Superbugs Flourish, Bacteriophage Therapy Recaptures Researchers' Interest. J. Am. Med.

Assoc. 2023, 329, 781–784. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed].

Al-Nabhani, N. A. and A. M. J. I. j. o. b. Shami (2023). "Molecular Study of Carbapenem Resistance Genes in

Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Clinical Samples in Baghdad Hospitals."v Al- 11.Nabhani, N. A. and A. M. J. I. j.

o. b. Shami (2023). "Molecular Study of Carbapenem Resistance.

Virulence, resistance and clonality of Proteus mirabilis isolated from patients with community-acquired

urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) in Brazil. de Oliveira, Wellington Danilo, et al. Microbial Pathogenesis (2021):

Quick Identification and Differentiation of Proteus spp. by PCR and RFLP Along with Their Antibiotic

Resistance Pattern. H Jannat, Samsuzzaman SM. Mymensing medical journal (2021): 355-361.

Preparation and evaluation of liquid fertilizer from Turbinaria ornata and Ulva reticulata. Karthik T, et al.

Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology (2020): 101712.

Association among biofilm formation, virulence gene expression, and antibiotic resistance in Proteus

mirabilis isolates from diarrhetic animals in Northeast China. Sun, Yadong, et al. BMC Veterinary Research

(2020): 1-10.

Virulence, resistance and clonality of Proteus mirabilis isolated from patients with community-acquired

urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) in Brazil. de Oliveira, Wellington Danilo, et al. Microbial Pathogenesis (2021):

Razzaque, M.S. Commentary: Microbial Resistance Movements: An Overview of Global Public

Health Threats Posed by Antimicrobial Resistance, and How Best to Counter. Front. Public Health 2021, 8, 10–

[Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed].

of Biofilm Production on Antibiotic Resistance in Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Clinical Samples in Kirkuk