Assessing Aluminum Concentration in Alum-Based Water Treatment Residuals in Halabja, Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Tareq Hamah-ameen Abdullah Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Halabja Technical Institute /Halabja, Medical Laboratory Technique, Kurdistan region of Iraq.


Aluminum residual, Alum, Alzheimer’s disease, Coagulation, Turbidity


Background & Objectives: The use of alum in the water purification process increases
the residual aluminum content in water and potentially has adverse effects on people's health,
and considering the water source of Halabja city and the efficiency of the Halabja water
treatment plant in purifying or filtering aluminum concentration, this study aims to the study
of aluminum concentration in the drinking water treatment plant of Halabja, Iraq.
Method: In order to assessment of water, 3 sites were chosen for sample collection in the
study including raw water directly from Sirwan River, treated water from treatment plant and
tap water from households during the period from July to December 2023. Water samples were
collected in pre-cleaned, sterilized glass bottles of 500 ml capacity and transported to the
Atmosphere Company for Environmental and Laboratory Services in ice-cooled containers.
Analysis was done for chemical parameters including Aluminum (Al), pH, temperature (CO)
total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and total Alkalinity.
Result: The amount of aluminum in Raw, Treated and Tap water was higher than the health
and healthy water standards. Although the amount of aluminum residuals in the treated water
was very low in the last analysis of sample, and despite being low, it was not in accordance
with international standards. Other physicochemical variables, pH, Turbidity, Temperature,
Alkalinity and T.D.S, although they were associated with fluctuations and increases in the
examined samples, but their values were in the optimal and standard range.
Conclusion: The use of alum in the purification process and the effect of other factors, the
concentration of aluminum remaining in the investigated waters is high and it is not safe and
sanitary water according to the standards, and this issue can have harmful effects on the
consumers of these waters.


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