Prevalence and Risk Factors of Epistaxis in College of Medicine in Sulaymaniyah


  • Haval Ahmed Hama University of Sulaimani/ College of Medicine/ Branch of Clinical Silences
  • Nmaa Aziz Bayi University of Sulaimani/ College of Medicine
  • Rand Dyary Muhammad University of Sulaimani/ College of Medicine
  • San Hassan Fars University of Sulaimani/ College of Medicine


Epistaxis, Nose bleeding, Nasal cavity


Background: epistaxis is one of the ENT problem that’s common in general population, it can
happen in any age due to variable causes and risk factors ,sometimes doesn’t need treatment while
in severe cases need surgical and medical care
Objective: The aim of this study is to find prevalence and risk factors among the population in
college of medicine in Sulaymaniyah
Patients and Methods: a retrospective cross-sectional study at college of medicine in
Sulaymaniyah university, in which 329 cases enrolled among the cases (students, teacher,
employer) are involved
Result: The prevalence of epistaxis among population in college of medicine in Sulaymaniyah
was found to be 52.9, most of the cases was below 18 years, it usually happened in summer.
Conclusion: Most of cases happen below 18 years, the most common risk factors was nasal trauma
and it usually happens in summer, most of the cases that experienced epistaxis had positive family


Buchberger AMS, Baumann A, Johnson F, Peters N, Piontek G, Storck K, et al. The role

of oral anticoagulants in epistaxis. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 2018 Jun


Drake LR, Vogl AW, Mitchell A. Gray’s Basic Anatomy. Elsevier [Internet]. 2018 [cited

May 4]; undefined–undefined. Available from:

The Endovascular Treatment of Epistaxis. Journal of the Belgian Society of Radiology.

Dec 30;99(2):65–73.

Tunkel DE, Anne S, Payne SC, Ishman SL, Rosenfeld RM, Abramson PJ, et al. Clinical

Practice Guideline: Nosebleed (Epistaxis). Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official

journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery [Internet]. 2020 [cited

Jan 9];162(1_suppl):S1–38. Available from:

Systematic literature review of determinants of sedentary behaviour in older adults: a

DEDIPAC study. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity [Internet].

Oct 6 [cited 2024 Mar 11];12. Available from:

Alqarni Z, Alajmi T, Alhumaidi U, Alhussain A, Alotaibi Y, Alzahrani H. Prevalence,

causes, treatment, and outcome of epistaxis. International Journal of Medicine in Developing

Countries. 2019;446–9.

Sarhan NA, Algamal AM. Relationship between epistaxis and hypertension: A cause and

effect or coincidence? Journal of the Saudi Heart Association. 2015 Apr;27(2):79–84.

Ameya G, Biresaw G, Mohammed H, Chebud A, Meskele M, Hussein M, et al. Epistaxis

and Its Associated Factors Among Precollege Students in Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Blood

Medicine. 2021 Jan;Volume 12:1–8.

Alhejaily MA, Alatawi AA, Alatawi MS, Mrighani HO. Evaluation of Knowledge,

Attitude and Practice of Epistaxis among the General Population of Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia. The

Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2019 Apr 1;75(1):1923–31.

Bequignon E, Vérillaud B, Robard L, Michel J, Prulière Escabasse V, Crampette L, et al.

Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL). First-line treatment of

epistaxis in adults. European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases [Internet].

May 1 [cited 2022 Oct 19];134(3):185–9. Available from:

McMullin B, Atkinson P, Larivée N, Chin CJ. Examining seasonal variation in epistaxis in

a maritime climate. Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery [Internet]. 2019 Dec 1

[cited 2024 Feb 13];48(1). Available from:

Tunkel DE, Holdsworth SM, Alikhaani JD, Monjur TM, Satterfield L. Plain Language

Summary: Nosebleed (Epistaxis). Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 2020 Jan;162(1):26–

Krulewitz NA, Fix ML. Epistaxis. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 2019


Lippincott Journals: Author Resources [Internet]. [cited 2024

May 4]. Available from:

Sarhan NA, Algamal AM. Relationship between epistaxis and hypertension: A cause and

effect or coincidence? Journal of the Saudi Heart Association. 2015 Apr;27(2):79–84.

Arshad M, Ahmed Z, Ali L. EPISTAXIS: An experience with over 100 cases [Internet].

[cited 2024 May 4]. Available from:

Veiga VC, Silva LMCJ, Sady ÉRR, Maia IS, Cavalcanti AB. Epistaxis as a complication

of high-flow nasal cannula therapy in adults. Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva [Internet].

Jan 24 [cited 2024 May 4];33:640–3. Available from:

Niekrash CE. Anatomy of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses. Applied Head and Neck

Anatomy for the Facial Cosmetic Surgeon. 2020 Dec 18;79–84.

Kamani T, Sama A. Anatomy and physiology of the nose and paranasal sinuses. 2015 Nov


Harkema JR, Carey SA, Wagner JG, Dintzis SM, Liggitt D. Nose, Sinus, Pharynx, and

Larynx. Comparative Anatomy and Histology. 2012;71–94.

Hirsch BE. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. JAMA. 2009 May


O’Connell PR, McCaskie AW, Sayers RD. Bailey and Love’s: SHORT PRACTICE of

SURGERY: 28th EDITION. Bailey and Love’s: Short Practice of Surgery: 28th Edition [Internet].

[cited 2024 May 4];1–1675. Available from:

Image 2. Contemporary French and Francophone Studies [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2024 May

;19(4):390–0. Available from:


1.Epistaxis: Prevailing Factors and Treatment [Internet]. [cited 2024

Mar 3]. Available from:

Dizdar O, Onal IK, Ozakn E, Karaklç E, Karadag O, Kalyoncu U, et al. Research for

bleeding tendency in patients presenting with significant epistaxis. Blood Coagulation &

Fibrinolysis. 2007 Jan;18(1):41–3.

S SWD, M RL, A DSIG. Characteristics of Epistaxis Patients at Sanglah General Hospital,

Denpasar from January 2015-December 2016. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal [Internet].

Mar 25 [cited 2024 May 4];11(1):305–10. Available from: