Establishment Of Chronic Strongyloides ratti Infection Model And Its Diagnostic Significance


  • Hind Younis College of Science, University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq,
  • Noor Abdulhaleem College of Science, University of Anbar, Anbar, Iraq,
  • Khalid Jameel Kadhim Al-Zihiry College of Medicine, University of Thi-Qar, Thi-Qar, Iraq,
  • Rukman Awang Hamat Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia.
  • Roslaini Abdul Majid Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia.
  • Leslie Than Thian Lung Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia.
  • Ngah Zasmy Unyah Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia


Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with asymptomatic chronic disease involving the gut and respiratory systems and can persist for long period undetected leading to development of fatal hyperinfection syndrome. The severity is even more in immunocompromised individuals or patients undergoing immune suppressive therapy. Unfortunately the disease is difficult to diagnose due to low parasite load and the irregular larval output. Development of efficient diagnostic techniques requires large supply of infective larvae and this can be achieved through in vivo maintenance of the parasite. In this regard, S. ratti is being used as a model instead of S. stercoralis due to difficulty and risk of infection. In this study, a significant amount of previously characterized filariform (iL3) larvae of S. ratti was collected. Chronic infection was successfully established and maintained by experimentally induced immunosuppression of Wistar rats following oral administration of prednisolone.  This model can serve as a good source of infective larvae for production of monoclonal antibodies and development of diagnostic assays for prevention of the disease. It can also provide room for further research in diagnostics of human strongyloidiasis.


Al Maslamani Mona A, Hussam A. Al Soub, Abdel Latif M. Al Khal, Issam A. Al Bozom, Mohammed J. Abu Khattab and Kadavil C. Chacko (2009). Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection after corticosteroid therapy: a report of two cases. Ann. Saudi Med. 2009 Sep-Oct; 29(5): 397–401.

Boscolo M, Gobbo M, Mantovani W, Degani M, Anselmi M, et al. (2007). Evaluation of an indirect immunofluorescence assay for strongyloidiasis as a tool for diagnosis and follow-up. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14: 129–133.

Fardet, L., Généreau, T., Poirot, J.L., Guidet, B., Kettaneh, A. & Cabane, J. (2007). Severe Strongyloidiasis in corticosteroid-treated patients: Case series and literature review. J. of Infection, 54(1): 18-27.

Grove DI (1996). Human strongyloidiasis. Adv. Parasitol. 1996;38:251–309.

Keiser, P.B. & Nutman, T.B. (2004). Strongyloides stercoralis in the immunocompromised population. Clinc. Microbiol. Rev., 17(1): 208-217.

Kramme, S., Nissen, N., Soblik, H., Erttmann, K., Tannich, E., Fleischer, B., Panning, M., & Brattig, N. (2011). Novel real-time PCR for the universal detection of Strongyloides species. Journal of medical microbiology, 60(4), 454-458.

Luis A. Marcos, Angelica Terashim, Herbert L. DuPont, Eduardo Gotuzzo (2008). Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome: an emerging global infectious disease. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2008) 102, 314—318.

Mahmuda, A., Al-Zihiry, K.J.K., Roslaini, A.M., Rukman, A.H., Abdulhaleem, N., Bande, F., Mohammed, A.A., Alayande, M.O., Abdullah, W.O. and Zasmy, U. (2017). Histopathological confirmation of disseminated larvae (iL3) of Strongyloides ratti in an immunosuppressed Wistar rat. Tropical Biomedicine 34(1): 212–223.

Marcos, L.A., Terashima, A., Canales, M. & Gotuzzo, E. (2011). Update on strongyloidiasis in the immunocompromised host. Current Infectious Disease Reports, 13(1): 35-46.

Requena-Me´ndez A, Chiodini P, Bisoffi Z, Buonfrate D, Gotuzzo E, Jose´ Munoz (2013). The Laboratory Diagnosis and Follow Up of Strongyloidiasis: A Systematic Review. PLoS. Negl. Trop. Dis. 7(1): e2002.

Siddiqui AA and Berk SL (2001). Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Clin Infect. Dis. 33(7):1040-7.

Viney M and Kikuchi T (2017). Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis - rodent models of Strongyloides infection. Parasitology. 144(3):285-294.