Expression of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha and Their Receptor (EGFR) in Thyroid Carcinoma and Benign Patients
Keywords:Thyroid cancer, TGF, EGFR, Immunohistochemistry
AbstractThe current study was included 178 patients, 111 patients out them were affected with thyroid cancer, 46 patients were benign neoplastic and 21 individuals were no cancers and benign as control group. The study was carried out in Laboratory of College of Science, University of Wasit in collaboration with AL-Hussein Teaching Hospital and Ibn al-Bitar Laboratory Specialist in Thi Qar Province, from January 2015 to April 2016. Immunohistochemical technique was used to determination the expression of TGFα and their receptor EGFR in all studied cases. The study aimed to estimation the expression of these proteins in thyroid carcinogenesis and the possibility of transforming the benign patients to thyroid cancer. The results showed overexpression in TGFα in thyroid cancer when compared with benign patients and control group with significant differences (p< 0.05). Regarding EGFR, the results explained no significant differences when compared between three samples. Our results concluded there is a strong relationship between TGFα overexpression and thyroid carcinogenesis.
- Nguyen, Q. T.; Lee, E. J.; Huang, M. G.; Park, Y. I.; Khullar, A. and Plodkowsk, R. A. (2015). Diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyroid cancer, American health & drug benefits, 8 (1): 30-38.
- Khatawkar, A. V. and Awati, S. M. (2015). Thyroid gland - historical, aspects, embryology anatomy and physiology, International Archives of Integrated Medicine, 2 (9).
- Sipos, J. A. and Mazzaferri, E. L. (2010). Thyroid cancer epidemiology and prognostic variables, Clinical Oncology, 22 (6): 395–404.
- Jemal, A.; Siegel, R.; Xu, J. and Ward, E. (2010). Cancer statistics, 2010, CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 60 (5): 277-300.
- Al Shahrani, A. S.; El-Metwally, A.; Al-Surimi, K.; Bin-Salih, S.; Saleh, Y.; Al-Shehri, A. and Ali, A. (2016). The epidemiology of thyroid diseases in the Arab world: a systematic review, Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 8(2): 17-26.
- Hussain, F.; Iqbal, S.; Mehmood, A.; Bazarbashi, S.; El-Hassan, T. and Chaudhri, N. (2013). Incidence of thyroid cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000–2010, Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy, 6 (2): 58-64.
- Ferlay, J.; Soerjomataram, I.; Ervik, M.; Dikshit, R.; Eser, S.; Mathers, C.; Rebelo, M.; Parkin, D. M.; Forman, D. and Bray, F. (2015). Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012, International Journal of Cancer, 136 (5): 359-386.
- National Cancer Institute (U.S.) (2015). SEER, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results: thyroid cancer, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute.
- Shrivastava, J. P.; Mangal, K. S.; Woike, P.; Marskole, P. and Gaur, R. (2016). Role of FNAC in diagnosing thyroid neoplasms – a retrospective study, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15 (1): 13-16.
- Trigo, J. M.; Capdevila, J.; Grande, E.; Grau, J. and Lianes, P. (2014). Thyroid cancer: SEOM clinical guidelines, Clinical and Translational Oncology, 16 (12): 1035-1042.
- Mazzaferri, E. L.; Harmer, C.; Mallick, U. K. and Taylor, P. K. (2006). Practical management of thyroid cancer: a multidisciplinary approach, Springer-Verlag, London.
- Herbst, R. S. (2004). Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics: Supplement, 59 (2): 21-26.
- Udart, Martin; U., Jochen; K., Gertraud M. and Peter, R. U. (2001). Chromosome 7 Aneusomy. A marker for metastatic melanoma: expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene and chromosome 7 Aneusomy in Nevi, primary malignant melanomas and metastases, Nature Publishing Group, 3 (3): 245-254.
- Robinson D. R.; Wu, Y. and Lin, S. (2000). The protein tyrosine kinase family of the human genome, Oncogene, 19(49): 5548-5557.
- Normanno, N.; De-Luca, A.; Bianco, C.; Strizzi, L.; Mancino, M.; Maiello, M. R.; Carotenuto, A.; De Feo, G.; Caponigro, F. and S., David S. (2006). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in cancer, Gene, 366(1): 2-16.
- Bogdan, S. and Klambt, C. (2001). Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, Current biology, 11(8): 292-295.
- Rosenbloom, K. R.; Armstrong, J.; Barber, G. P.; Casper, J. and Clawson, H. (2015). The UCSC genome browser database: 2015 update, Nucleic acids research, 43: 670-681.
- Wieduwilt, M. J. and Moasser, M. M. (2008). The epidermal growth factor receptor family: Biology driving targeted therapeutics, Cellular and molecular life sciences, 65 (10): 1566-1584
- Acton, Q. A. (2013). Gastrointestinal hormone receptors: advances in research and application, Atlanta, Georgia.
- Jameson, J. L.; DeGroot, L. J.; De Kretser, D. M.; Giudice, L.; Grossman, A.; Melmed, S.; Potts, J. T. and Weir, G. C. (2016). Endocrinology: adult & pediatric, 7th edition, Elsevier/Saunders Philadelphia, PA.
- Croyle, M.; Akeno, N.; Knauf, J. A.; Fabbro, D.; Chen, X.; Baumgartner, J. E.; Lane, H. A. and Fagin, J. A. (2008). RET/PTC-induced cell growth is
mediated in part by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation:
evidence for molecular and functional interactions between RET and EGFR,
Cancer Research, 68(11): 4183-4191.
- Sethi, K.; Sarkar, S.; Das, S.; Mohanty, B. and Mandal, M. (2010). Biomarkers for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology, 8 (4): 341-52.
- Lam, A. K.; Lau, K. K.; Gopalan, V.; Luk, J. and Lo, C. Y. (2011). Quantitative analysis of the expression of transformation growth factor alpha (TGF- α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinicopathological relevance, Pathology, 43 (1): 40–47.
- Lau, K. P. (2007). Clinicopathological Roles of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGFα) in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, Hong Kong University Theses Online.
- Daveau, M.; Scotte, M.; FrançOis, A.; Coulouarn, C.; Ros, G.; Tallet, Y.; Hiron, M.; Hellot, M.-F. and Salier, J. P. (2003). Hepatocyte growth factor, transforming
growth factor alpha, and their receptors as combined markers of prognosis
in hepatocellular carcinoma, Molecular Carcinogenesis, 36 (3): 130-141.
- Fan, C. Y.; Melhem, M. F.; Hosal, A. s.; Grandis, J. r. and Barnes, E. l. (2001). Expression of androgen receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, and transforming growth factor alpha in salivary duct carcinoma, Archives of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, 127 (9): 1075-1079.
- Konturek, P. C.; Konturek, S. J.; Sulekova, Z.; Meixner, H.; Bielanski, W.; Starzynska, T.; Karczewska, E.; Marlicz, K.; Stachura, J. and Hahn, E. g. (2001).
- Expression of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, apoptosis related proteins Bax and Bcl-2, and gastrin in human gastric cancer, Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 15 (7): 989-999.
- Gong, L.; Chen, P.; Liu, X.; Han, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Li, C. and Xie, J. (2012). Expressions of D2-40, CK19, galectin-3, VEGF and EGFR in papillary thyroid carcinoma, Gland Surg, 1 (1): 25–32.