Toxoplasma Gondii Related Programmed Cell Death (Pd1 and Pd-L1) in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Keywords:Toxoplasma gondii, Diabetes mellitus, ELISA, PD-1, PD-L1
AbstractToxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful microorganisms on Earth due to its high
compatibility with a wide range of host species, including mammals, Diabetes mellitus is a
worldwide condition, however it is more prevalent in the industrialized nations. According to the
International Diabetes Federation's most recent estimates for 2019, there are currently an estimated
537 million adults living with diabetes worldwide.in Iraq more than 13.9% of adult live with
diabetes . The main objective of the current study is to verify the presence of immunosera in
diabetic patients against Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relationship with role programmed
death (PD-1) and programmed death ligand ( PD-L1 ) in patients .One hundred twenty (120)
serum sample take from diabetic patients match with 60 control group were obtained and tested
using widely available enzyme immunoassay kits for anti-Toxolasma IgG. The total infection with
toxoplasmosis among patients with DM was 42(35%). Sandwich ELISA technology were used to
explain the level PD-1and PD-L1 and the result were found a high level of pd-1 and pd-l1 in
patient compared with control .
- Elsheikha, H. M., Marra, C. M., & Zhu, X. Q. (2020). Epidemiology, pathophysiology,
diagnosis, and management of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Clinical microbiology reviews, 34(1), 10-
- Attias, M., Teixeira, D. E., Benchimol, M., Vommaro, R. C., Crepaldi, P. H., & De Souza,
W. (2020). The life-cycle of Toxoplasma gondii reviewed using animations. Parasites & vectors,
- Montazeri, M., Mikaeili Galeh, T., Moosazadeh, M., Sarvi, S., Dodangeh, S., Javidnia,
J., & Daryani, A. (2020). The global serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in felids during
the last five decades (1967–2017): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasites & vectors,
- Fatollahzadeh, M., Eskandarian, A., Darani, H. Y., Pagheh, A. S., & Ahmadpour, E.
(2021). Evaluation of Th17 immune responses of recombinant DNA vaccine encoding GRA14
and ROP13 genes against Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice. Infection, Genetics and Evolution,
- Parenti, D. M., Steinberg, W., & Kang, P. (1996). Infectious causes of acute pancreatitis.
Pancreas, 13(4), 356-371.
- Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., Sicree, R., & King, H. (2004). Global prevalence of
diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes care, 27(5), 1047-1053.
- Ai, L., Xu, A., & Xu, J. (2020). Roles of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: signaling, cancer, and
beyond. Regulation of Cancer Immune Checkpoints: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms and
- Han, Y., Liu, D., & Li, L. (2020). PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: current researches in cancer.
American journal of cancer research, 10(3), 727.
- Nihad S. F., & Hamad S. S. (2017). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in
diabetic patients at Kirkuk province. IJSBAR, 36, 157-165.
- Hemida M. H., Shahat S. R., Bayoumy A. S. and et al. (2017). Prevalence of toxoplasmosis
among diabetic patients. European Journal of Pharmaceuticaland Medical Research, 4(11), 137-
- Hamad H. K. (2017). Determination of antibodies (IgG, IgM) against Toxoplasma gondii
among diabetic patients in Baghdad. Egypt. J. Exp. Biol.(Zool.), 13(2), 201-203.
- Elkholy A.A,Omar R.E and et al. (2022) nvestigating the potential link between
seroprevalence of Toxoplasma IgG and both types of diabetes mellitus in Benha city ,Egypt,
- Modrek, M. J., Saravani, R., Mousavi, M., Khorashad, A. S., & Piri, M. (2015).
Investigation of IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii among diabetic patients.
International Journal of Infection, 2(3).
- Sharpe A.H, Wherry E.J, Ahmed R.and Freeman G.J.(2007). The function of programmed
cell death 1 and its ligands in regulating autoimmunity and infection.Nat Immunol; 8:239–245.
- Mohammed F. E., Yaseen A. N., & Aldabagh, M. A. (2020). Evaluation of Soluble PD-1
and PD-L1 in Iraqi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Patients with Chronic Toxoplasmosis. Jinu.
M, Thankamma. P. George, NA Balaram, Sujisha. SS 2. Profile of Burn Deaths: A Study Based
on Postmortem Examination of Burn Cases at RNT, 20(3), 475.
- Bando H., Lee Y., Sakaguchi N. and et al . (2018). Inducible nitric oxide synthase is a key
host factor for Toxoplasma GRA15-dependent disruption of the gamma interferon-induced
antiparasitic human response. MBio, 9(5), e01738-18.
- Atwan F. K., Ali W. R., & Ghazi H. F. (2021).An Essential Role of PD-1/PDL-1 In
Placental of Aborted Women With Toxoplasmosis,24 : 570-576.
- Perry J. A., Shallberg L., Clark J. T. and et al. (2022). PD-L1–PD-1 interactions limit
effector regulatory T cell populations at homeostasis and during infection. Nature Immunology,
- Xiao J., Li Y., Rowley T., Huang J. and et al. (2023). Immunotherapy targeting the PD-1
pathway alleviates neuroinflammation caused by chronic Toxoplasma infection. Scientific reports,
- Fife B. T., & Pauken K. E. (2011). The role of the PD‐1 pathway in autoimmunity and
peripheral tolerance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1217(1), 45-59.
- Kadhim W. D., Tektook N. K. and Khalaf A. K. (2020). Study the Correlation between
Cytokines (IL-6, IL-27, TGF-Beta and IFN-Gamma) Levels and Microbial Abortion among
Woman in Thi-Qar Province. International Journal of Innovations in Biological and Chemical
- Abed, A.A and Khalaf , A.KH. (2023). Serological Detection for Toxoplasmosis among
Patients with Covid-19 in Thi-Qar Province. Archives of Razi Institute, Vol. 78, No. 2 715-720
Copyright (c) 2023 University of Thi-Qar Journal Of Medicine
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.