Identifying Potential Biomarkers for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Diagnosi


  • Fatima Jassim Musa Al-Yasiri Shatrah Education Department, Directorate of Thi Qar Education, Ministry of Education
  • Dhafer A. Alghezi Microbiology Department,College of Medicine, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq, Cancer research unit, College of Medicine, University of Thi-Qar, Iraq
  • Fadhil Abbas Munshid Al-Abadi College of Education for Pure Sciences, Thi-Qar University, Iraq


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, biomarkers


Cutaneous Leishmaniasis represents one of the widespread epidemic disease in Iraq
caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasite. However, There are clinical difficulties in
distinguish between this disease and other skin diseases can leave permanent skin scars.
This study aims to identify potential biomarkers for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis diagnosis
and prognosis and to know the progression of the disease and the distribution of
inflammation within the skin cells. In this review, 17 proteins have been selected using
literature searching such as pubmed and web of science to identify potential biomarkers
for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis diagnosis and prognosis and further studies needed to find
the role of these protein in the development of the disease.


Silva, H., Liyanage, A., Deerasinghe, T., Sumanasena, B., Munidasa, D.,

de Silva, H., and Karunaweera, N. (2021). Therapeutic response to thermotherapy in cutaneous

leishmaniasis treatment failures for sodium stibogluconate: a randomized controlled proof of

principle clinical trial. The American J. Trop. Med and Hygiene , 104 (3) , 945 - 950 pp.

Al-Yasiri, F. J. M., Alghezi, D. A., & Al-Abadi, F. A. M. (2022). Diagnostic

usefulness of immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of CD1a and CD68 biomarkers for

cutaneous leishmaniasis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 6(S7), 3605–3613.

Georgiadou,SP;Makaritsis,K.P;and Dalekos,G.N. (2015). Leishmaniasis

revisited : Current aspect on epidemiology ,diagnosis and treatment J. trans. Int. med .3 (2): 43 -


Wamai, R.G.; Kahn, J.; McGloin, J.; and Ziaggi, G. (2020). Visceral Leishmaniasis:

A Global overview , J .Glob. Heal. Sci., 2 (1): 1- 22 pp.

Al-Nahas ,S.(2006). Isoenzyme typing and leishmaniasis diagnosis. J. labrotory

diagnostics. 4 (2),1 - 8 pp.

Ghorbani, M and Farhoudi R. ( 2018). Leishmaniasis in humans: drug or vaccine

therapy? Drug Design, Development and Therapy 2018:12 25–40.

Rashidi, S., Mansouri, R., Ali-Hassanzadeh, M., Ghani, E., Karimazar, M.,

Muro, A., and Manzano-Román, R. (2022). miRNAs in the regulation of mTOR signaling and

host immune responses: the case of Leishmania infections. Acta Tropica, 106431.

James, W. D., Elston, D., Treat, J. R., Rosenbach, M. A. and Neuhaus,

I. (2019). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin E-Book: Clinical Dermatology. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Janardhan, K. S., Jensen, H., Clayton, N. P., and Herbert, R. A. (2018).

Immunohistochemistry in investigative and toxicologic pathology. Toxicologic pathology, 46 (5),

- 510 pp.

Yoo, H. J., Kim, N. Y., and amp; Kim, J. H. (2021, May 31). Current understanding of

the roles of CD1A-restricted T cells in the immune system. Molecules and cells. Retrieved

August 18, 2022.

Behar S, Porcelli SA.(2007). T cell activation by CD1 and lipid antigens.

Springer; CD1-restricted T cells in host defense to infectious diseases. T Cell Activation by CD1

and Lipid Antigens, 215-150 pp.

De Jong, A., and Ogg, G. (2021). CD1a function in human skin disease.

Molecular Immunology, 130, 14-19 pp

Amanzada, A., MalikI, A., Blaschke, M. (2013). Dentification of CD68 (+)

neutrophilgranulocytes in invitro mode ofacute inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease. Nt

J .Cin Exp Pathol ; 6:561570.

Chistiakov, D. A., Killingsworth, M. C., Myasoedova, V. A., Orekhov, A. N., and

Bobryshev, Y. V. (2017). CD68/macrosialin: not just a histochemical marker. Laboratory

investigation, 97(1), 4-13.

Faiz, F. (2021, October 7). CD68 cluster designation 68. University of


Gregory, D. J., and Olivier, M. (2015). Subversion of host cell signalling by the

protozoan parasite Leishmania. Parasitology, 130 (S1), 27-35 pp.

Wolday, D. ; Akuffo , H. ; Demissie , A. and Britton, S. (2004). Role of Leishmania

donovani and its lipophosphoglycan in CD4+ T-cell activation-induced human

immunodeficiency virus replication. Infect. Immun ., (67): 5258-5264.

AL Lami S.(2021). Epidemiological and diagnostic and genetics study for

leishmania parasite in Misan government. M.Sc. College of Education for pure science.

University of Thi-Qar. 76 pp.

Haghdoust, S., Noroozbeygi, M., Hajimollahoseini, M., Masooleh, M. M.,

and Yeganeh, F. (2022). A candidate vaccine composed of live nonpathogenic Iranian Lizard

Leishmania mixed with Chitin microparticles protects mice against Leishmania major

infection. Acta Tropica, 227, 106298.

Ronet, C., Passelli, K., Charmoy, M., Scarpellino, L., Myburgh, E., La

Torre, Y. H., and Tacchini-Cottier, F. (2019) . TLR2 signaling in skin nonhematopoietic cells

induces early neutrophil recruitment in response to Leishmania major infection. J. Investigative

Dermatology, 139 (6), 318- 328 pp.

Haddy,N.J. (2006). An epidemiological and serological study of visceral leishmaniasis

in Dhi Qar Governorate.( M.Sc thesis,Thi-Qar University).

Khamaes, E. S., Al-Bayati, N. Y., and Abbas, A. H. (2022). Tissue inhibitor

of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) serum level and genetic polymorphisms associated with

cutaneous Leishmania infections. Human Gene, 33, 201049

Beldi, N., Mansouri, R., Bettaieb, J., Yaacoub, A., Souguir Omrani, H.,

Saadi Ben Aoun, Y. and Guerbouj, S. (2017). Molecular characterization of Leishmania

parasites in Giemsa-stained slides from cases of human cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis,

Eastern Algeria. Vect. Bor.Z oonot. Di s., 17 (6), 416 – 424 pp.

Ford, J., Hughson, A., Lim, K., Bardina, S. V., Lu, W., Charo, I. F., and

Fowell, D. J. (2019). CCL7 is a negative regulator of cutaneous inflammation following

Leishmania major infection. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 306 .

Al- Al-Mosawi, A, M ,J. (2015,a). Molecular and Immunological Study of

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the middle and Southern Provinces PHD thesis ,Kerbala

University.82 pp.

Al-Mosawi, N. AJ. AK. (2015, b) Investigate of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and

knowledge of the role heat shock protein HSP70 in the immune response in the province of Thi

Qar . M.Sc. College of Education for pure science. University of Thi-Qar. 90 pp.

Schwenkenbecher, J. M., Fröhlich, C., Gehre, F., Schnur, L. F., and Schönian, G.

(2004). Evolution and conservation of microsatellite markers for Leishmania tropica. Infection,

Genetics and Evolution, 4(2), 99-105 pp.

De Carvalho Gallo, J. C., de Mattos Oliveira, L., Araújo, J. S. C.,

Santana, I. B., and dos Santos Junior, M. C. (2018). Virtual screening to identify Leishmania

braziliensis N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors: pharmacophore models, docking, and molecular

dynamics. J. molecular modeling, 24 (9), 1-10 pp.

Passelli, K., Prat-Luri, B., Merlot, M., Goris, M., Mazzone, M., and

Tacchini-Cottier, F. (2022). The c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to neutrophildriven pathology in cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Pathogens, 18(1), e1010247.

Saravanan, P., Venkatesan, S. K., Mohan, C. G., Patra, S., and Dubey, V.

K. (2010). Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 of Leishmania parasite as a therapeutic

target. European chemistry, 45(12), 5662-5670 pp.

Raj, S., Sasidharan, S., Dubey, V. K., and Saudagar, P. (2019). Identification of lead

molecules against potential drug target protein MAPK4 from L. donovani: An in-silico approach

using docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation. PloS one, 14(8),


Diotallevi, A., Buffi, G., Ceccarelli, M., Neitzke-Abreu, H. C., Gnutzmann,

L. V., Junior, M. S. D. C. L., and Galluzzi, L. (2020). Data on the differentiation among

Leishmania Viannia spp., Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis in Brazilian clinical

samples using real-time PCR. Data in brief, 28, 104 pp.

Taheri, E., Dabiri, S., Meymandi, M. S., & Saedi, E. (2017). Possible interrelationship

of inflammatory cells in dry type cutaneous leishmaniasis. Iranian Journal of Pathology, 12(2),

Fernandez-Flores A, Rodriguez-Peralto JL.(2016). Morphological and

immunohistochemical clues for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the interpretation of

CD1a status. J .Am Acad. Dermatol. 74: 536–5pp.

Sundharkrishnan L, (2017). North JP. Histopathologic features of cutaneous

leishmaniasis and use of CD1a staining for amastigotes in Old World and New World

leishmaniasis. J Cutan Pathol. Dec ;44 (12) : 1005-1011 pp.

Farokhpour, F., Rajabi, P., Naeini, B. A., and Naimi, A. (2021). Comparison of

expression of CD1a and CD68 markers in skin leishmaniasis samples with positive and negative

Leishman body. Am. J. Clin and Experimental Immunol 10 (2), 5 pp.

Karabulut YY, Bozkurt FK, Türsen Ü, Bayram G, Temel GÖ, and Erdal

ME. (2021).’The role of CD1a expression in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, its

relationship with leishmania species and clinicopathological features. Dermatol Ther ;34(4) :


Gadelha, S. D. A. C., Cunha, M. D. P. S. S. D., Coelho, G. M., Marinho, T.

M. S., and Hirth, C. G. (2019). Evaluation of the diagnostic potential of CD1a

immunohistochemistry for visceral leishmaniasis. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de

São Paulo, 61 pp.

Khalid,N.D .(2018). systemic and local immuneResponse in individuals

infected with scabies (master thesis,Diyala university) . 134 pp