Epidemiologic and Pathologic Characteristics of Lung Cancer in Thiqar Province, Iraq


  • Musaab R. Al-Bayati ( MBChB, FICMS Internal Medicine, MRCP Medical Oncology, Diploma Medical Oncology, ESMO Certificate ) Thi-Qar Oncology Center, Thi-Qar Health Directorate, Iraq
  • Ahmed Abdulhussein Atiyah ( MBChB, FICMS Medical Oncology ) Thi-Qar Oncology Center, Al Habbobi Teaching Hospital, Thi-Qar Health Directorate, Iraq


Lung cancer, Age and Sex distribution, Histological types, Thi Qar


Introduction : Lung cancer is the most common cancer in males and the leading cause of cancer mortality.
In females, it is also one of the top three females cancers in terms of incidence and mortality. With the
changes in smoking prevalence and habits in many countries , the epidemiological and pathological features
of lung cancer have changed significantly in the last three decades.

Aim of the study :
To study the epidemiological and pathological characteristics of lung cancer in Thi-Qar, a major province
in the south of Iraq.

Patients and Methods :
Retrospective cross sectional study of 287 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of primary
carcinoma of the lung who attend Al-Nasiriyah oncology center during the period from January 2013 to
December 2018.

Results :
The total number of registered patients was 287. Males constitute 71 % (n = 205), and, females 29 % (n =
82) with a Male to Female ratio of 2.5:1. Mean age of the patients in the study was 66 years (SD = 12.9) ,
Range (36 – 95 years). About 75% of the patients are between 50 – 80 years of age, with 12% of patients
below 50 years of age. Up to 57% of the patients in the study are current smokers, 28% ex-smokers, while
15% are never smokers. Females constitute half of never smoker patients with lung cancers, while, males
make up two thirds of lung cancer patients with history of smoking (current or past). Non small cell lung
cancer constitute 80% of cases while small cell lung cancer 20% of cases. Squamous cell carcinoma was
the most common histological type in both sexes (40%) and the predominant type in males, while,
adenocarcinoma was more common in females. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer were
strongly associated with smoking, while, adenocarcinoma occur at higher frequency in never smokers. Half
of the patients diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease, while, 28% diagnosed with loco-regional
disease, and, only 22% of the patients diagnosed with localized disease
Conclusions :
Lung cancer in Thi-Qar is more common in males than females, and, in age groups 50 to 70 years of age,
occur at significantly higher frequency in smokers, and, presents in half of cases at an advanced stage of the
disease. Squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant histological type, although adenocarcinoma were
more commonly seen in females and never smokers.


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