Role of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in Pulmonary Diseases


  • Salwan Qahtan Sultan (MBChB, FICMS in Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery), Al-Nasiriyah Cardiac Center / Thi Qar Health Directorate
  • Abdulkhalik Zaki Banyan F.R.C.S, F.L.L.U.M.C


Bronchoscopy- is an endoscopic procedure, which provides direct access to
the tracheo-bronchial tree and play an essential role in the diagnosis and
treatment of patients with chest problems.
Fiberoptic Bronchoscopes- are flexible bronchoscopes composed of
fiberoptic bundles which provide both illumination and visualization pathways.
A small channel with a diameter of 1 to 3 mm traverses the fiberoptic scope,
through which instruments can be passed. Several manufacturers produce
various models, and each model has particular advantages and limitations, and
they differ in outer diameter from less than 4mm to more than 6mm and also in
the arc of bending from 60 to 180 degrees, while the viewing angles vary from
66 to 100 degrees (1)
Ultrathin Fiberoptic Bronchoscopes- are also now available with an
outer diameter of 1.8 to 2.2 mm,it is usefull and safe in diagnosis of peripheral
pulmonary lesions.


- Anderson HA, Faber LP : Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of the

bronchoscope. Chest. 1978; 73 (suppl): 685.

- Arthur D.Boyd ; Endoscopy : Bronchoscopy and Esophagoscopy in David C. Sabiston,

Frank C. Spencer : surgery of the chest. Volume 1 sixth edition. Philadelphia. W.B. saunders

copmany. 1996 : 69-98.

- Mark Tedder, Ross M. Ungerleider. : Baronchoscopy, David C. Sabiston, Jr.,

Textbook of surgery, 15th ed. W. B. Saunders Company, 1997.

- Peter Stradling.: Diagnostic bronchoscopy a teaching manual. Sixth edition.

Edinburgh. Churchill Livingstone. 1993.

- Corsello-BF, Funahashi-A,

Hranicka-LJ:Felxible fiberoptic bronchoscopy : Its role in diagnosis of lung lesions. -JPostgrad- Medicine. 1982 72: 95-105, 108.

- Jackson C, Jackson CL: Bronchoesophagology. Philadelphia : W.B. Saunders, 1950.

- fkeda S : Flexible bronchofiberscope. Annals of otology, Rinology and Laryngology.

; 79 : 916-923.

- Newton-DA, Edwards GF: Route of introduction and method of

anesthesia for fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Chest 1979 ; 75 :650.

- Oho K, Amemiya R: Bronchial nomenclature in practical fiberoptic bronchoscopy.

First edition. London- Chapman and Hall-1980; 26-38.

- Abal Arca J,Parente I,Almazan RL.Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary

disease.Lancet 1977;2:523-36.

- Hansen R,Zavala DC,Rhodes ML.Transbronchial lung biopsy via flexible fiberoptic

bronchoscopy.Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;114:112-28

- Garg B et al .Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2013;55:145-148]

- Jindal SK,Behera D,Dhand R, kashyap S, Malik SK.Flexible bronchoscopy in clinical

practice:a review of 100 procedure.Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1985;27:153-8.

- Cohen BH,Diamond EL,Graves CG et al.Acommon familial component in lung cancer

and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Lancet 1977;2:523-36.

- Kalra S,D'Souza G,Bhusnurmath B,Jindal SK.Transbronchial lung biopsy in diffuse

lung disease:a study of 28 cases.indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1989;31:265-70.

- Hsiegh YC , Chiang CH, Shen CY: Diagnostic flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy :

analysis of results of biopsy and brush in 105 patients in J.A. Nakhosyeen and W. Maassen :

Bronchology. The Netherlands. Martinus Nijhoff. 1981; 72-75.

- El-Hassani NB, and kays MA :Rigid versus flexibe bronchscopy in diagnosis of

brochogenic carcinoma. Thesis, 1994.

- Prakash UBS,Offord KP,Stubbs SE.Bronchoscopy in North America:The ACCP

survey.chest 1991;100:1668-75.

- Hershko E, Reichert N, Baum GL : Prevalence and treatment of complications of 550

fiberbronchoscopies in J.A. Nakhosteen and W.Maassen: bronchlolgy. The Nether lands.

Martinus Nijhoff. 1981; 72-75.

- Suratt Pm, Smiddy JF, Gruber B: Deaths and complication associated

with fiberoptic bronchscopy. Chest. 1976 ; 69 :747-51.

- Sheldon RL: flxible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Primary-care. 1985; :12