Inflammatory Profile in Omicron Variant-Associated Covid-19: Evaluating Biomarkers for Severity Prediction


  • Saman M. Amin Saeed Ministry of Health, General Dirocterate of Health, KRG, Kalar, Iraq
  • Serwan Muhammad Amen Said Kalar Educational Directorate, KRG, Kalar, Iraq
  • Hardy Hassan Rasul Nursing Department, Kurdistan Technical Institute, KRG, Iraq


COVID-19, CRP, D-Dimer, WBCs, biomarkers, severity


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic demands effective biomarkers for assessing disease
severity. C-reactive protein (CRP), D-Dimer, and White Blood Cell counts (WBCs) have
emerged as potential indicators of COVID-19 severity and prognosis.
Materials and Methods: This study, conducted at Qalla Hospital, enrolled 112 confirmed
COVID-19 patients and 35 healthy controls. Comprehensive clinical and laboratory evaluations
included CRP, D-Dimer, and WBC measurements. Diagnosis of COVID-19 followed established
clinical criteria and confirmed through SARS-CoV-2 testing. Rigorous assessments were
conducted to ensure precise participant classification.
Results: Significantly elevated CRP (p-value=0.0001), D-Dimer (p-value=0.0001), and WBCs
were observed in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Elevated CRP levels
indicating inflammation, increased D-Dimer levels associated with coagulation abnormalities,
and raised WBCs within CRP level (0.943) indicative of an immune response were prevalent in
COVID-19 patients. Gender distribution was balanced, while comorbidities such as diabetes
mellitus (25%), hypertension (34.8%), kidney disease (6.2%), and multiple concurrent diseases
(34%) were prevalent in the COVID-19 cohort.
Discussion: The substantial differences in CRP, D-Dimer, and WBCs underscore their
potential as valuable biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring COVID-19 severity. These
biomarkers could serve as critical tools in evaluating disease progression, predicting
complications, and guiding tailored therapeutic interventions. Conclusion: CRP, D-Dimer, and
WBCs exhibited marked disparities between healthy individuals and COVID-19 patients,
indicating their potential as diagnostic and prognostic indicators. Continued investigation into
these biomarkers' utility may refine risk stratification and treatment strategies, ultimately
improving patient outcomes in COVID-19 management. Understanding the clinical implications
of CRP, D-Dimer, and WBC levels could profoundly impact disease management and patient
care strategies.


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