Correlation between Physiological State and Hormonal Levels with Fetal Gender During First Trimester of Pregnancy Iraqi Women


  • Kaniaw R. Khafar Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Halabja Technical Institute, Nursing Department


Fetal sex, Hemodynamic parameters, Anthropometric measurements, β-hCG, Testosterone


Physiological and hormonal changes during pregnancy are common, but whether maternal
physiological and hormonal status could affect fetal gender remains unclear. To examine the links
between physiological and serum hormonal status with fetal sex in the first trimester. A cross-sectional
research involving 75 healthy young pregnant women (20-35 years) were selected after ultrasound
confirmation of gestational age at conception to 12 weeks of conception. Participants were divided into
2 groups: 38 carried a male fetus, and 37 carried a female fetus. The data acquired through hemodynamic
parameters, anthropometric measurements, and determinations of serum glucose, β-hCG, and
testosterone levels. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS (version 20). The average β-hCG
level of male fetuses was lower than that of female fetuses (18129±402 vs 27732±452 U/L, p<0.005).
Of note, maternal serum testosterone level was significantly different in those with male and female
fetuses (1.49±0.15 vs 2.61±0.14 nmol/L, p<0.05). No significant association was found between
maternal glucose concentration and fetal gender. Also, no statistically significant differences were found
for hemodynamic parameters (including diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, and mean arterial
pressure) and anthropometric measurements (mother's: height, weight, and body mass index)
when compared between two groups. It can be said that maternal serum β- hCG and total testosterone
levels are a good predictor of fetal sex in the first trimester


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