The Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Iraq Population


  • Ali Abid Saadoon M.B.Ch.B, MSc, Ph D Community Physician, Dean College of Medicine / University of Warith Al-Anbiayaa
  • Mudhafar Razzaq Hayyawi MBChB, JICMS & CABMS in General Surgery, D. S., Al-Nasiriyah Teaching Hospital / Thi Qar Health Directorate.
  • Maitham Fadhil Hassan MBChB, FICMS& CABMS in General Surgery, Suq Al-Shuyukh /Thi Qar Health Directorate
  • Yakeen Kassim Abdul Hassan Medical Student


It is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults and Is currently the most
common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.[1] HCC Is the third leading cause of
cancer-related deaths worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health
problem worldwide, due to its high incidence (approximately 600000 new cases in 2000),
and high rates of mortality [1]. The identification that chronic liver disease is the process
relevant risk factor for this tumour, has made surveillance campaigns aimed at early
detection of HCC possible and surveillance is now universally recognised to be the
practical approach for improving treatment of HCCpatients . The few cases (less than 5%)
of HCC that do not develop on the background of chronic liver disease present late and
usually have poor chances of cure.


- Forner A, Llovet JM, Bruix J (March 2012). "Hepatocellular carcinoma".Lancet.

(9822): 1245–1255. Doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61347-0.

PMID 22353262. S2CID 24927898.

- Global Cancer Observatory". Retrieved 2021

- Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics,CA Cancer J Clin.

;55:74–108. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

- 4. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Robbins SL, Cotran RS. Robbins and Cotran

Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; [Google Altekruse

SF, McGlynn KA, Reichman ME. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence, mortality, and

survival trends in the United States from J Clin Oncol. 27:1485–91. [PMC free article]

[PubMed] [Google Scholar]

- Statin use and risk of liver cancer: evidence from two population-based studies.

Tran KT, McMenamin ÚC, Coleman HG, et al. Int J Cancer. 2020;146:1250–1260.

[PubMed] [Google Scholar] Scholar]

- Direct-acting antivirals do not increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

recurrence after local-regional therapy or liver transplant waitlist dropout. Huang AC,

Mehta N, Dodge JL, Yao FY, Terrault NA. Hepatology. 2018;68:449–461. [PMC free

article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar

- Van damme P. , Kane M. , Meheus A. : for theViral hepatitis , prevention board

integration of Hepatitis B vaccination into national Immunization programs BMJ.


- Sherlock S. : Hepatic tumors in Disease of the Liver and biliary system 8th ed. ,

London Blackwell scientific , 1989:558.

- Akriviadis EA. , liovet JM. , Efremidis SC. EtAl : HCC. Brit J. Surgery 1998;85:

– 31 .I

- Niederani C. , Fischer R. , Sonneberg A. et al : Survival and causes of death in

cirrhotic and In non cirrhotic patients with primary Hemochromatosis N. Eng J. Med .

;313 : 1256 – 62 .

- Purtillo DT. : chlonorchiasis and hepaticTumors. Geop. Med. 1976;28:21-27 .

- Jay, H.S.: Internal Medicine, little Brown and Company Boston, Toronto, 6th ed .

:1804 .

- Abou – shady – M . :Molecular aspects of HCC , department of visceral &

Transplantation surgery , University of Bern .Inselspital switzerland . Swiss Surg. 1995;5

:102 – 6.

- Zuhair Alkassir , Ziad M . Juredini : HCC. InIraq . J- Fac. Medicine Baghdad – 1986


- Green field, L.I. , Mutholland, M., Oldham, T.: Surgery scientific principles and

practice . 2


Ed. LippincottRaven,Philadelphia1996:490.

- Flickinger JC . , Carr BI . , Lotz MT. : cancerOf the liver . In Devita Vt. , Hellman

S., Rosenberg SA. , eds cancer : principles and Practice of oncology . 5th ed . Philadelphia

: Lippincott – Raven , 1997:1087–97 .

- Chalasani N ., Hollander JC sr., said A. et al : Screening for HCC in patients with

advanced Cirrhosis . Am. J. Gastroenterology 1999;94: 2988 – 93 .

- International Agency for Research on Cancer ,Hepatitis viruses , Lyon , France , In


Res. Cancer 1994 ( IARC Mongr 59 ) .

Sherman M. : Alphafeto protein : An obtituary J. Hepatol. 2001; 34 : 603